The Thinking, Theories and Theology of Drs. Westcott and Hort

INTRODUCTION

Dr.Hort: “Surely if ever Babylon or Rome were rightly cursed, it cannot be wrong to desire and pray from the bottom of one’s heart that the American union may be shivered to pieces.
Life & Letters of F.J.A.Hort, Vol. 1, page 459

THE FATHERS OF THE NUMEROUS NEW VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE

Because of the enormous influence of the theories of Drs. Westcott & Hort upon the majority of modern scholars and Bible revisionists, these two men might well be called, “The Fathers of the new Bible versions.

These two Cambridge scholars rose up, ostensibly to defend the faith from the attacks of destructive critics in the mid 19th century. The English people secure in their trust that these men would take care of attacks on the Scripture; unknowingly accepted the public utterances, and writings of men who boasted between themselves that they held doctrine that would be considered dangerous heresy.

The Westcott & Hort Greet text, exerts a tremendous influence, either directly or indirectly upon virtually every modern Bible version.

Even the Bible Societies, in a frantic effort to disassociate themselves with the increasingly discredited theories and Greek text of Westcott and Hort, cannot avoid the baneful influence of their thinking. The “Eclectic” text method of some of the modern boards of translators groans under the weight of Hort’s unholy admiration for two very strange manuscripts. These he exalted highly, giving them, (Vaticanus & Sinaiticus) an unearned reputation for authenticity, which they in no way deserve. Hort & Westcott dominated the committee which in 1881 produced the English revised version. These two manuscripts were used to greatly undermine the authority of the great Greek Text, the Textus Receptus, which underlies the Authorized version (KJV). This Greek text reliably represents the vast majority of all Greek manuscripts.

This brochure is a revealing study which shows the enormous influence of the “occult” on the thinking of Westcott & Hort. Of particular interest is the fact that Hort’s first recorded statement of antipathy toward what he called that “Vile Textus Receptus” is contained in a letter in which he also records the fact that he and Westcott and others were founding members of an occult investigation society which they name “The Ghostly Guild.” Life & Letters of F.J.A. Hort, Vol. , page 211.

This hatred of the Textus Receptus and the Authorized Version of the Bible has been transmitted by means which Dr. Hort admits were designed to work unconsciously upon the minds of “Orthodox but rational men.” This strange, unearthly, hatred of the true Bible is often found among “orthodox” Christians who have, without knowing Hort’s plan of deception, been misled into accepting one or more of the great many new Bible versions. This record follows Hort from the time of his departure from the Bible believing Evangelical faith of his mother, to the place where he was quite willing to believe that the “Ransom” price was paid to the Devil, BUT NEVER TO THE FATHER. Ibid. p. 428. CF Hebrews 9:14

This brochure is an effort to demonstrate that Drs. Westcott & Hort held “doctrines of demons” in their personal theology, and to show that in a very wide range of their thinking and theories the same spirit prevailed. The writer contends that their personal correspondence reveals doctrines that are blasphemous in regard to the atonement, and to humanity.

DR. HORT WITH REGARD TO THE NEGRO SLAVES

"They have shown themselves to be an immeasurably inferior race, just human and no more, their religion frothy and sensuous, their hightest virtues those of a good new-foundland dog. Life & Letters F.J.A. Hort, Vol. 1, page 458

Finally, this is to demonstrate that in exalting the exceedingly strange manuscripts Vaticanus and Sinaiticus over the Textus Receptus, Dr. Hort was more terribly wrong than he was in his desire to see the American Nation shivered to pieces, and in his racism against the Negro people. THINK ON THESE THINGS.

The Thinking, Theories, and Theology of Westcott and Hort

In reading various articles and books which concern themselves with the great Bible version controversy of our day, the reader cannot help but be impressed with the fact that a multitude of scholars affirm variously that, “Westcott and Hort slew the Textus Receptus. They furnished the death blow to the Textus Receptus.” There seems to be a special emphasis on the part played by Fenton John Anthony Hort in this apparent triumph of Codex B. and its Allies, over the Textus Receptus. For this reason the present paper will deal primarily with the Thinking, Theories and Theology of Dr. Hort.

Nowhere in all literature can we find a more perfectly clear self revelation of the man than in the Life and Letters of Fenton John Anthony Hort, published in 1896 by his son, Arthur Fenton Hort. In his preface to this remarkable publication, Hort Jr. says concerning his father, “His published work could give but a partial view of the man” ... “In all that he wrote his real self in shown, AND NOWHERE MORE THAN IN HIS LETTERS” ... “I should add perhaps that in his letters he was wont to express his opinions with considerable freedom; he would unburden himself to a friend with a remarkable absence of reserve which otherwise characterized his utterances. FOR THIS VERY REASON IT WOULD NOT BE RIGHT TO GIVE TO THE WORLD WITHOUT A CAUTION, VIEWS WHICH HE NEVER MEANT FOR PUBLICATION.” Ibid. pp. 7-8 Preface.

With such a candid introduction to his book before us, we may be prepared for some very remarkable insights into the thinking of the man who often is given the awesome title, “The Man Who Slew the Textus Receptus.

First we must ask and answer the question, “Is it right and proper to bring his personal thinking and theology to the attention of men and women who are seeking the truth?”

When we consider the drastic nature of the changes made to the text of the King James Version of the Scriptures by the Westcott and Hort teams of Revisers in 1881; and the deep theological teaching that is involved, it is not too much to say that this revelation should have been done many years ago. In other words this paper is far past due.

The Bible gives ample support for this conclusion. When the Apostle Paul would encourage Timothy in his ministry, he warns him of teachers who would be men “of corrupt minds,” with hidden motives, “reprobate concerning the faith.” 2Tim 3:8.

Then Paul makes a remarkable statement; “THOU HAS FULLY KNOWN MY DOCTRINE, MANNER OF LIFE, PURPOSE, FAITH...” In other words there was nothing that Paul believed or practiced, or hoped to accomplish, that he was unwilling to have his hearers know. 2Tim 3:10 KJV. Paul’s forthright declaration of doctrine and manner of life may be seen to be an echo of his Lord’s.

Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing.” John 18:20 (KJV)

The multitudes who have so ardently followed the theories of Dr. Hort may be more than a little concerned as his letters speak for themselves concerning his doctrine, manner of life, and purpose. Colwell succinctly states Hort’s purpose and the major goal of his life. “Hort did not fail to reach his major goal. He dethroned the Textus Receptus.

In order to accomplish this design, Dr. Hort enthroned two ancient documents, or manuscripts, Vaticanus and Sinaiticus. These he used as the basis of his attack on the Textus Receptus. These two manuscripts have come to be known as “the oldest and best.” In the Westcott and Hort Revision of 1881, the work was carried on with the principle in mind, that if any reading in the great Textus Receptus was contradicted by both of these Mss., a revision of the KJV was in order at that point. Westcott and Hort and others who follow in their train, felt that because these two Mss. were rated as very old, they must be closer to the original writings, of the inspired writers of the Scripture.

That there is something clearly erroneous in this line of thinking is beautifully illustrated by Herman Hoskier, in his monumental work, "Codex B. and its Allies". On page 1, volume 2, he states that there are 3036 differences between the readings of Vaticanus (Codex B) and Sinaiticus (Aleph), in the Gospels alone. Hoskier then proceeds to set the 3036 differences forth in a masterly piece of scholarship. Who can doubt that there would be seven thousand places where these two “oldest and best???” manuscripts could be found to contradict one another in the New Testament.

When we consider that the vast majority of modern versions of the Bible are based essentially upon these two ancient manuscripts, which are still used as witnesses against the text of the King James Version, it could be slightly disconcerting to some to remember that the Bible plainly tells us that witnesses which do not agree with each other are not witnessing truth. Mark 14:55-56. At any rate these manuscripts which possibly differ seven thousand times in the New Testament are guilty of deceiving those who trust in them. If indeed it were as Hort supposed that being nearer to the original writings these were more accurate, then the most elementary scholarship would rightly expect to find the two Mss. coming closer and closer together. Instead of this we find them so often at variance with each other, that the scholar who trusts their testimony must be quite bewildered. A strange mental adjustment must be made on the part of those who follow Dr. Hort in his theories here. Westcott and Hort relied for success upon the enthroning of Vaticanus (B) in order to dethrone the Textus Receptus.

HORT OPPOSED BY HOSKIER

The scholarly Hoskier commences his preface to Vol. of Codex B and its allies, as follows, “it is high time that the bubble of codex B. should be pricked.” This giant among scholars proceeds to prick that bubble with amazing ability.

In Volume 2, Page 1, Hoskier says, “In the light of the following huge lists let us never be told in future that either Aleph (Sinaiticus) or B (Vaticanus) represents any form of neutral text.” This erroneous claim of Dr. Hort is now being abandoned by many who once followed him in this; but those same scholars are exceedingly reluctant in many cases, to concede that every one of Dr. Hort’s so called reasons for ABADONING THE TEXTUS RECEPTUS were false. We shall now proceed to examine some of the basic reasons which contributed to the great delusion which blinded the mind of this famous scholar. We shall not have far to look as we examine his revealing letters.

HORT'S HISTORY

MATERNAL INFLUENCE

Of his father’s mother, Hort Jr. writes, “She was a woman of great mental power, which she brought to bear on every detail of daily life ... Her religious feelings were deep and strong. Circumstances had made her an adherent of the Evangelical school, and she was to a certain degree hampered by it; the Oxford movement filled her with dread and anxiety as to its possible effect on her son. She was unable to enter into his theological views, which to her school and generation SEEMED A DESERTION OF THE ANCIENT WAYS; thus, pathetically enough, there came to be a barrier between mother and son. ... it is sad that he should have had to recognize that the point of view was different. She studied and knew her Bible well, and her own religious life was most carefully regulated.” Life & Letters of F.J.A. Hort, Vol. 1, page 7

BIBLE BELIEVEING EVANGLICALS AWAKEN!

NOTE:
1. Hort was brought up by a well taught Bible believing evangelical mother.

2. She recognized the fact that her son had departed from the faith once delivered to the saints, and was saddened thereby.

3. Hort acknowledged his departure from the Evangelical faith.

“Further I agree with them [i.e. Editors of Essays & Reviews] in condemning many leading specific doctrines of the popular theology as, to say the least, containing much superstition and immorality of a very pernicious kind. ... The positive doctrines even of the Evangelicals seem to me perverted rather than untrue. There are I fear, still more serious differences between us [i.e. Editors of Essays & Reviews] on the subject of authority, and especially the authority of the Bible.” Life & Letters, Vol. 1, page 400.

We understand then upon the authority of his own declamation against Evangelical Bible believer’s doctrines, and his rejection of the authority of the Bible, that Hort’s mother’s great concern for her son was justified. Hort was an apostate.

Obviously, Hort’s rejection of Biblical authority, while very real, was more subtle than that of the authors of “Essays and Reviews.” One cannot help but wonder just what sort of ‘authority,’ Hort would claim for the Bible, while he openly condemned many leading specific doctrines of the popular theology, and branding evangelical positive doctrines as perverted rather than untrue?

APOSTASY IS A SNARE OF THE DEVIL

Hort Jr. continues his revelation concerning his father.

“A word is perhaps necessary to explain his religious development at this period. So far, as has been shown, HE HAD BEEN BROUGHT UP IN THE DOCTRINE OF THE EVANGELICAL SCHOOL .. the effects of this training were doubtless modified in the atmosphere of Rugby ... at a not much later period however he outgrew the evangelical teaching, which he came to regard as sectarian...” Ibid., page 41

“HENCE HE WAS LED TO SEEK FIRMER FOUNDATIONS THAN HE COULD FIND IN THE EVANGELICAL POISTION .. HE COULD NOT DISCOVER THE RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY WHICH HE DESIDERATED.” Ibid. page 61

Let us now consider from is own admission the teachings for which he exchanged the glorious doctrines of Holy Scripture. Here are some of the fables which were received as if they were truth when Dr. Hort “outgrew” the evangelical teaching.

HORT AND DOCTRINE

HORT NO LONGER ABLE TO DISTINGUISH TRUTH

“I am very far from pretending to understand completely the ever renewed vitality of Mariolatry. But is it not much accounted for, on the evil side, by the natural revertence of the religious instinct to idolatry and creature worship and aversion to the Most High; and, ON THE GOOD SIDE, by a right reaction from the inhuman and semi-diabolical character with which God is invested in all modern orthodoxies-Zeus and Prometheus over again? [See page 6] IN PROTESTANT COUNTRIES THE FEARFUL NOTION, ‘Christ the believer’s God’ is the result. In Romish countries the Virgin is a nearer and more attractive object, not rejected by the dominant creed; and the Divine Son retires into a distant cloud world with the Father, ... Another idea has lately occurred to me: is not Mariolatry displacing much worship of scattered saints, and so becoming a tendency towards unity of worship? ... I HAVE BEEN PERSUADED FOR MANY YEARS THAT MARY-WORSHIP and ‘JESUS’-WORSHIP HAVE VERY MUCH IN COMMON IN THEIR CAUSES AND THEIR RESULTS. Perhaps the whole question may be said to be involved in the true idea of mediation, which is almost universally corrupted in one or both of two opposite directions. On the one hand we speak and think as if there were no real bringing near, such as the NT tells of, but only an interposition between two permanently distant objects. on the other we condemn all secondary human mediators as injurious to the one, and shut our eyes to the indestructible fact of existing human mediation which is to be found everywhere. But this last error can hardly be expelled TILL PROTESTANTS UNLEARN THE CRAZY HORROR OF THE IDEA OF PRIESTHOOD.” Ibid., Vol. 2 pp 49-51

THE RAPE OF HORT’S MIND IS FURTHER REVEALED!

“I confess I have no repugnance to the primitive doctrine of a ransom paid to Satan, though neither am I prepared to give full assent to it. BUT I CAN SEE NO OTHER POSSIBLE FORM IN WHICH THE DOCTRINE OF A RANSOM IS AT ALL TENABLE; ANYTHING IS BETTER THAN THE NOTION OF A RANSOM PAID TO THE FATHER.” Life & Letters., Vol. 1, page 428

Defenders of Dr. Hort admit that he was rather “weak” on the atonement. That admission is a masterpiece of understatement.

The depths of his repudiation of the truth is indicated by his scathing reference to the subject, when he suggest that Mariolatry may be accounted for,

“On the good side, by a right reaction from the inhuman and semi-diabolical character with which God is invested in all modern orthodoxies - Zeus and Prometheus over again? In Protestant countries the fearful notion, ‘CHRIST THE BELIEVER’S GOD’ is the result;” Ibid., Vol. 2, page 50.

The Zeus and Prometheus reference concerns Greek mythology. Zeus had ordained that humans should do without fire for cooking meat in order that man should be forced to eat raw flesh. Prometheus stole fire from Mount Olympus and brought it down to man. Zeus swore vengeance on Prometheus and had him chained naked to a pillar in the Caucasus Mountains. Each day a vulture appeared and feasted on his liver which was restored every night. After enduring this agony for years Prometheus was released by Hercules with the consent of Zeus. Thus Prometheus becomes the great friend of man, who suffers for his love of man by being punished by the great god, Zeus. The Athenian dramatist Aeschylus presents the picture of the supreme God with his father’s curse resting upon him. Reconciliation is accomplished, when Zeus’ wrath is abated.

In another essay he makes Zeus advance from such cruelty to wisdom. And Zeus’ initial vicious conception of justice, ending in chaos, is succeeded by a wiser more gentle concept. Who can fail to see in Hort’s blasphemous comparison a diabolical distortion of the glorious doctrines of the atonement?

Consider the following.

Isaiah 53:6 “All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all.”

Isaiah 53:10 “Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise Him; he hath put Him to grief; when thou shalt make His soul an offering for sin ...”

Gal 3:13 “Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law being made a curse for us; for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree.”

When Hort says that all modern orthodoxies invest out God with a semi-diabolical character he simply reveals the tremendous influence of the world of the occult in his own thinking.

2Cor 4:3-4 “But if our Gospel be hid, it is hid to them that are lost: in whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not.”

NOTE! The Bible teaches that unbelief is the result of the ‘occult’ working in the mind.

The lie is given to these errors in 1Tim 2:5-6; Hebrews 9:14; Isaiah 53:10, and many other Scriptures.

HORT DECEIVED BY DARWIN

“For one who like Hort combined with his devotion to theology and ever-fresh enthusiasm for science and criticism, the year 1860, in which fell controversies aroused by the publication of the ‘Origin of Species’ and of Essays and Reviews,’ was to a very high degree exciting. Discussion of these two books fills a large part of his letters for some months, and on the subjects of both he burned to speak openly.” Ibid., Vol. 1, page 374.

Have you read Darwin? ... in spite of difficulties, I am inclined to think it unanswerable.” Ibid., page 416

“But the book which has most engaged me is Darwin. Whatever may be thought of it, it is a book that one is proud to be contemporary with. I must work out and examine the argument more in detail, but at present my feeling is strong that the theory is unanswerable.” Ibid. page 416

HORT TO WESTCOTT, Oct 15th, 1860

“It certainly startles me to find you saying that you have seen no facts which support such view as Darwin’s. But I do see immense difficulties in his theory, some of which might by this time have been removed, if he had understood more clearly the conditions of his problem. But is seems to me the most probable manner of development, and the reflexions suggested by his book drove me to the conclusion that some kind of development must be supposed.” Life & Letters, page 431

HORT TO MACMILLAN, Nov 9th, 1860

“Another last word on Darwin. ... I shall not let the subject drop in a hurry, or, to speak more correctly, it will not let me drop. It has completely thrown me back into natural science, not that I had ever abandoned it either in intention, or altogether in practice. But now there is no getting rid of it any more than of a part of oneself.” Ibid., pp 433-434

The careful observer will note that Dr. Hort, who was totally deceived himself, accomplished in the religious realm, precisely that which Darwin succeeded in doing in the scientific realm; namely the deceiving of the great majority of the “experts.”

HORT AND THE ATONEMENT

DR. HORT AND THE ATONEMENT

It is often only a step from confusion regarding man’s origin, to confusion regarding that which determines his destiny, that is, his attitude towards the atonement.

In Hort’s case it was so. He found great difficulty in accepting the truth that our Lord and Saviour “bore our sins in His own body on the tree.” 1Peter 2:24

In spite of the fact that the Scripture plainly teaches, “Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us” (Gal 3:13), Hort found the doctrine of “substitutionary atonement, most unacceptable.

HORT TO F.D. MAURICE November 16th, 1849

“O that Coleridge, while showing the notion of a fictitious substituted righteousness, of a transferable stock of good actions, obscured the truth of man’s restoration in the Man who perfectly acted out the idea of man, had expounded the truth, (for such I am sure, there must be) that underlies the corresponding heresy, (as it appears to me) of a FICTITIOUS SUBSTITUTED PENALTY.” Ibid., Vol. 1 page 120

HORT TO WESTCOTT, October 15th 1860

“I entirely agree ... with what you there say on the Atonement, having for many years believed that the absolute union of the Christian (OR RATHER OF MAN) with Christ Himself, is the spiritual truth of which the popular doctrine of substitution is an immoral and material counterfeit ... Certainly nothing can be more unscriptural than the modern limiting of Christ’s bearing our sins and suffering to His death; but indeed that is only one aspect of an almost universal heresy.” Ibid., page 430

DR. HORT BECOMES EXAMINING CHAPLAIN FOR BISHOP ELY. (DR. HAROLD BROWNE)

“Before accepting this post he candidly explained to the Bishop that objection might be taken to his views, especially on the doctrine of the Atonement; but to his great relief, the Bishop was perfectly satisfied to take him as he found him.” Ibid., Vol. 2, page 57

Let us at this point keep in mind the words of Paul to Timothy: “THOU HAST FULLY KNOWN MY DOCTRINE...” 2Tim 3:10a

The question before us is this; did Bishop Ely fully know Hort’s doctrine on the atonement when he accepted him as examining Chaplain?

HORT TO BISHOP ELY, November 8th 1871

“My fear is that, partly in views and still more in sympathies, I do not sufficiently conform to any of the recognized standards to be a fit person for the special post which you offer me ... I have, I trust a firm and assured belief in the reality of revelation, the authority of scriptures, the uniqueness and supremacy of the gospels ... Moreover Mr. Maurice has been a dear friend of mine for twenty three years, and I have been deeply influenced by his books ... but they have led me to doubt whether the christian faith is adequately or purely represented in all respects in the accepted doctrines of any living school.” Life & Letters, Vol. 2, page 155

Maurice, a son of a Unitarian minister, was dismissed from his position as Professor of English Literature and history, at King’s College London, in 1853, because of his unorthodoxy on the subject of eternal punishment.

HORT TO BISHOP ELY, November 12th, 1871

“I feel entirely with you that a fundamental difference on that subject of the atonement, if it existed, would place me in a false position as your examining chaplain ... If there be any difference, it concerns only the relation of the Atonement to other doctrines ... Christian peace comes not from sin denied, or sin ignored, but sin washed away. If it was not washed effectually away once for all upon the cross, an awakened conscience has no refuge but in futile self efforts after a heathenish self-atonement. (See Rape of Hort’s Mind. Page 7 for an illustration of erroneous thinking that completely negates the value of this apparent orthodoxy.) About the matter of the Atonement, we must all feel that it lies in a region into which we can have only glimpses ... It is the vain attempt to bring the Divine Truth down to the level of our own understanding, that has created all the dark perversions of the Atonement which have justly offended sensitive consciences, and so given to the denial of the truth itself.” Ibid., Vol. 2, page 157

Let us keep in mind the fact that Hort considered the idea of substitionary suffering an offense, and felt that the ransom could well be offered to Satan but never to the Father.

“So also the uniqueness of the great Sacrifice seems to me not to consist in its being a substitute which makes all other sacrifices useless and unmeaning, but in its giving them the power and meaning which of themselves they could not have. He (Maurice) may have dwelt too exclusively on the idea of sacrifice which is suggested in Hebrews 10:5-10, AND HE MAY HAVE FAILED TO MAKE CLEAR THAT SACRIFICE IS NOT THE ONLY WAY OF CONCEIVING THE ATONEMENT.” Ibid., page 158

THE CORRECTIVE OF SCRIPTURE

Leviticus 17:11 “For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul.”

Obviously Dr. Hort and the Word of God differ on the Atonement.

Ephesians 5:2 “And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us and hath given Himself for us AN OFFERING AND A SACRIFICE TO GOD.” (Not to Satan as Hort suggests)

Hebrews 9:26b “now once in the end of the world hath He appeared, TO PUT AWAY SIN BY THE SACRIFICE OF HIMSELF.”

Hebrews 10:12 “But this man, after HE HAD OFFERED ONE SACRIFICE FOR SINS FOR EVER, SAT DOWN ON THE RIGHT HAND OF GOD.”

1Corinthians 5:7 “Christ our Passover is SACRIFICED FOR US.”

Bishop Ely’s reply to Hort is enlightening, as to what he did not know about Hort’s theology.

BISHOP ELY TO DR. HORT, November 18th, 1871

“I believe from what you kindly write that there is no fundamental difference between us on the doctrine of the Atonement, and I am disposed to flatter myself that there may be great sympathy between us on many points.” Ibid., Vol. 2, page 159

Either Hort deceived the Bishop or the Bishop himself was also heretical concerning the Atonement.

BISHOP ELY continues to DR. HORT

“I hope I may have misconceived Maurice; for on the subject in question, I have been a good deal pained by his writings. I entirely feel with you that it is quite possible to believe the sacrifice of Christ to be the acting out and manifestation of an eternal principle, WITHOUT DISPARAGING THE ATONING POWER OF THAT SACRIFICE. What I fear is that Mr. Maurice does substitute the one thought for the other, AND DOES NOT COMBINE THE TWO.” Ibid., Vol. 2, page 159

Bishop Ely probably could not know the tremendous influence of Maurice on the thinking and theology of Hort. Throughout his life, Hort constantly referred to Maurice in the most glowing terms of adulation and praise. Hort Jr. tells us the sad story in A SHORT SENTENCE.

“MAURICE’S TEACHING WAS THE MOST POWERFUL ELEMENT IN HIS RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENT, SATISFYING MANY A WANT WHICH HAD HITHERTO DISTRESSED HIM.” Life & Letters, Vol. 1, page 42

Hort never seems to have lost his supreme confidence in Maurice. We find him as a young man submitting himself and his thinking to the verdict of Maurice on the most important doctrines.

HORT TO MAURICE November 16th, 1849

“Since you have been chosen rather to guide us in the old ways, which God made, and not you, surely the aid you have already given is a pledge of your willingness to assist us again in discerning the eternal order among all the confusions that beset us, and to bear with the perverseness which more than anything blinds our eyes. (2Cor 4:4) I have therefore resolved to ask you to guide me, if you can, to a satisfactory solution of a question which has long been tormenting me ... I mean the question whether any man will be hereafter punished with never ending torments, spiritual or physical.” Ibid., Vol. 1, page 116

There then follows a string of questions and doubts and guesses which reveal how completely Hort’s mind was confused.

If Hort had not already rejected the full authority of the Scriptures he could have this vexing question settled by referring to the Bible; rather than to a man who was to be dismissed from his position for heretical views on that very question.

John 3:36 would have settled the issue. The words are clear. “He that believeth on the Son [Lord Jesus Christ] hath everlasting life: And he that believeth not the Son SHALL NOT SEE LIFE: BUT THE WRATH OF GOD ABIDETH ON HIM.”

Rev 20:15 “And whosoever was not found written in the book of life, was cast into the lake of fire.” Vs 10 clearly states that in the lake of fire the inhabitants shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever.

THEOLOGICAL OUTLOOK CAUSE OF DEEP DEPRESSION

“His mind ran much on theological difficulties, and his perplexities caused at times deep depression. The result was that he wrote to Maurice a long letter on Eternal Punishment and Redemption...” Ibid., pp 91,92

This action of Hort’s would resemble the action of a lamb going to a wolf to ask directions. In each case the answer would prove fatal. Real Bible study with the leading of the Holy Sprit should never produce depression or confusion.

1Cor 14:33 “For God is not the Author of confusion.”

Psalm 19:8 “The Statutes of the Lord are right, REJOICING THE HEART.”

HORT TO JOHN ELLERTON CHRISTMAS DAY 1849

“It was with the greatest difficult that I screwed out time to write to Maurice; and that I should have deferred, but that the question was daily driving me mad.” Ibid., Vol. 1, page 124

Contrast; “rejoicing the heart” and “Driving me mad.” Obviously Hort was trapped in the web of false doctrine, at an early age. One might suggest, from the moment that he ceased to believe the evangelical fundamental doctrines of Scripture.

HORT AND THE OCCULT

HORT A MEMBER OF A SECRET SOCIETY

“Yet he found time to attend the meetings of various societies, and in June joined THE MYSTERIOUS COMPANY OF THE APOSTLES ... He remained always a grateful and loyal member of the secret club ... He was mainly responsible for the wording of the oath that binds the members to a conspiracy of silence.

Before consenting to join, he asked Maurice’s advice. Vol. 1 Page 170-171. GOD’S COMMAND VS. MAURICE’S ADVICE. Matthew 5:34 and 37 “But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God’s throne; But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay; for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.”

HORT GREATLY INFLUENCED BY THE OCCULT

“TWO OTHER SOCIETIES of widely different aims were started in the same year, IN BOTH OF WHICH HORT SEEMS TO HAVE BEEN THE MOVING SPIRIT: one a small club formed for the practice of choral music, the other called by its members, THE GHOSTLY GUILD, the object of which was to classify authenticated instances of what are now called ‘psychical phenomena’ ...” Ibid., Vol. 1, page 172

HORT - THE OCCULT - AND THE TEXTUS RECEPTUS

In 1Timothy 4:1, Paul speaks of seducing spirits and doctrines of demons. “Now the Spirit speaketh expressly that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith (this is precisely what Hort did) giving heed to seducing spirit’s and doctrines of demons.”

It is only a short step from abandoning evangelical doctrines fundamental to the faith, to that of “giving heed” to seducing spirits, and “doctrines of devils.”

Any teaching which contradicts the clear teaching of the Holy Spirit, comes from an unholy spirit, i.e. a demon. Dr. Hort’s letters seem to literally abound in contradictions of Scripture; and, as we have already seen, he glories in his rejection of evangelical doctrines. This is the work of Satan in the souls of men.

SCHOLARS HAIL HORT AS “THE MAN WHO SLEW THE TEXTUS RECEPTUS”

Let Dr. Hort speak for himself on this matter.

HORT TO JOHN ELLERTON December 20, 1851

“I had no idea till the last few weeks of the importance of texts, having read so little Greek Testament, AND DRAGGED ON WITH THE VILLAINOUS TEXTUS RECEPTUS ... THINK OF THAT VILE TEXTUS RECEPTUS LEANING ENTIRELY ON LATE MANUSCRIPTS: IT IS A BLESSING THERE ARE SUCH EARLY ONES ...” Life & Letters, Vol. 1, page 211.

Hort refers of course to the very corrupt Codex B. (Vaticanus), and very probably Codex L - Regius at Paris, a carelessly written manuscript which often supports Vaticanus readings. Later in 1859 the Codex Sinaiticus, in which its finder Tischendorf, noted twelve thousand alterations, made it’s appearance. There he considered the “oldest and best” mss. From where did Hort get this antipathy to the Textus Receptus so early in his career? How did he conceive the ingenious theories to minimize the fact that the Textus Receptus, (the Greek text underlying the King James Version of the Bible), is without doubt representative of a very high percentage of all Greek manuscripts? Let the careful student of the case, remember that Hort was never able to produce a vestige of historical evidence for his carefully spun out theories. It just does not exist.

HORT AND THE OCCULT!

To this writer the statement which immediately follows Hort’s describing the sacred text as “Vile” is most revealing.

“Westcott, Gorham, C.B.Scott, Benson, Bradshaw, Laurd, etc. and I have started a society for the investigation of ghosts and all supernatural appearances, and effects, being all disposed to believe that such things really exist, and ought to be discriminated from hoaxes and mere subjective delusions; we shall be happy to obtain any good accounts well authenticated with names.” Ibid., Vol. 1, Page 211.
“Our own temporary name is the GHOSTLY GUILD.”

The connection of this statement with his declamation against the Textus Receptus is of great significance.

THE SECRET IS OUT!

Here we have the hidden background for the modern spreading rejection of the King James Version. The followers of Westcott and Hort are following the lead of men who at the instigation of seducing spirits, have departed from the faith. In some cases this departure is openly manifested by a strictly forbidden prying into the occult. These having received from the world of spirits a hatred for the true Word of God, are swiftly and surely leading multitudes into the same Satanic pitfall.

Witness the strange behaviour of multitudes who have abandoned the King James Version of the Scriptures, react in various ways.

(a) Many refuse to discuss the reason for receiving a modern version.
(b) Many more have an angry reaction when questioned.
(c) Many in high positions give evasive answers.
(d) Many say the most ridiculous things, without proof of any kind.
(e) Many deride the Textus Receptus. Derision is the last resort of a mind that is bankrupt of sensible arguments.
(f) Almost all avoid an open public debate on this vital subject.

Any and all of the above reactions are those of men and women who have been misled in the greatest matter in this life. That is, where is the pure Word God?

Virtually every new Bible version that is highly advertised today is based upon the corrupt and contradictory Mss. Vaticanus and Sinaiticus. Protest as they may the translators labour under the heavy shackles of the erroneous thinking of Westcott and Hort.

It was Westcott and Hort who figured greatly in the elevating of Vaticanus and Sinaiticus to the unwarranted place of authority that these manuscripts hold in the minds of modern translators.

HORT'S METHOD

HORT'S METHOD OF GENEALOGICAL EVIDENCE

There is then a reserve yet a fourth method, the elaboration is perhaps Hort’s most original contribution to the science of textual criticism - that is the method of ‘genealogical evidence.’ The principle indeed had been applied to manuscripts by previous scholars, but NEVER SO FULLY DEVELOPED.” Life & Letters, Vol. 2, page 249

Many scholars today state unequivocally that Westcott and Hort did not and could not apply the “genealogical” test to the MSS. of the New Testament. In other words, Hort’s great method and its so called assured results have been proven to be a great deception. Scholars of stature have branded Hort’s “assured results” as a fabrication. This seems to be a polite way of saying that Hort lied.

HORT’S METHOD SLAYS ONLY THOSE WHO BELIEVE IN IT

It now becomes obvious that Hort’s great weapon, or “genealogical method,” with which he “slew” the Textus Receptus was a phantom sword. It could neither cut nor hurt the Textus Receptus. His “assured results” were deceptions of the most reprehensible character. The scholars believed the lie and like sheep going astray turned to Greek texts based upon greatly inferior manuscripts.

By this time Hort knows that he did not “slay” the Textus Receptus. It is highly probable that the Textus Receptus will “slay” Hort. Jesus said, “the Word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day.” John 12:48b

And so upon the teachings of a man who admittedly departed from the faith of Evangelical believers, and who yielded himself up to secret societies, including the occult; who also received Satanic deceptions concerning the Atonement and many other doctrines; who also is being branded by modern scholars as a deceiver, the religious world moves tragically and swiftly in the FOOTSTEPS OF WESTCOTT & HORT.

The awesome tragedy of our day is this; namely that the identical blindness concerning the Scriptures that led Westcott & Hort to reject the Textus Receptus is fastening itself on the minds of multitudes of men and women who like Hort are being drawn from the position of faith in the Scriptures faith in Bible version which indeed corrupts the Word of God. The tragedy is heightened by the fact that a great number of sincere Christian men and women who are influential positions are engaged in spreading the deceptions of Westcott & Hort, while all the time feeling that they are ‘improving’ on the readings of the King James Version. What a day of reckoning lies ahead if Rev 22:18-19 means anything at all.

In the light of Revelation 12:9, “Satan which deceiveth the whole world” and Luke 18:8; “When the Son of Man cometh, shall He find faith on the earth?” The mind boggles under the triumph of “the old Serpent” who in Eden’s garden first cast a doubt regarding the Word of God, and then an outright denial into the mind of Eve. The religious world races madly after scores of “new and improved” versions of the Bible. The vast majority of which seem to specialize in casting doubts upon the Deity of Christ, His virgin birth, and the blood atonement.

AN AWAKENING

God in mercy is awakening some among the learned.

The Testimony of a scholar who worked on the introduction to the New American Standard Version and was also on the board of translators of the Amplified Version.

After reading Dr. David Otis Fuller’s most excellent books Which Bible? and True or False?, he writes as follows:

“I carried these titles with me all summer long, and immersed myself in them. I have never underscored books so much as I have done in them. They enhanced my appreciation of the KJV as the true revelation of God as no other writings. As a member of the comittee in the production of the Amplified New Testament, we conscientiously and honestly felt it was a mark of intelligence to follow "Westcott and Hort." Now, what you have in these books strikes terror to my heart. It proves alarmingly that being conscientiously wrong is a most dangerous state of being. God help us to be more cautious, lest we fall into the snares of the arch deceiver.”
In a personal letter to the writer of this brochure, the same scholar writes; with reference to the New American Standard Version:

“When questions began to reach me, at first I WAS QUITE OFFENDED. However, in attempting to answer, I began to sense that something was not right about the NASV. Upon investigation, I wrote my very dear friend, Mr. Lockman, EXPLAINING THAT I WAS FORCED TO RENOUNCE ALL ATTACHMENT TO THE NASV ... I could not add much to what Dr. Fuller has in his books, copies of which you possess. I can aver that the project (NASV) was produced by thoroughly sincere men who had the best intentions. THE PRODUCT, HOWEVER, IS GRIEVOUS TO MY HEART AND HELPS TO COMPLICATE MATTERS IN THESE ALREADY TROUBLOUS TIMES. GOD BLESS YOU AS YOU PRESS THE BATTLE!” (Dr. S. Franklin Logsdon)

HORT PLANNED TO DECEIVE

HORT PLANNED TO DECEIVE SINCERE SCHOLARS AS THE ONE JUST QUOTED.

The Apostle Paul who was indeed a man of God, was not only willing but desirous that men and women should be fully aware of his “doctrine, manner of life, (AND) PURPOSE ...” 2Tim 3:10. Westcott and Hort deliberately hid the worst of their theological errors, and their PURPOSE.

“The errors and prejudices which we agree in wishing to remove, can surely be more wholesomely and also more effectually reached by individual efforts of an indirect kind than by combined open assault. At present very many orthodox but rational men are being unawares acted on by influences which will assuredly bear good fruit in due time. If the process is allowed to go on quitely; but I cannot help fearing that a premature crisis would frighten back many into the merest traditionalism. And as a mere matter of prudence, it seems to me questionable to set up a single broad conspicious target for the philistines to shoot at, unless there is some very decided advantage to be gained.” Life & Letters, Vol. 1, page 400

There we have a very plain statement to the effect that Hort was deliberately leading orthodox believers into the same diabolical trap into which he and Westcott had already fallen.

May every Christian person who had been led to trust the theories of Westcott & Hort ponder prayerfully the implications of this hiding of their purpose. Please keep in mind also that the new Bible versions are all greatly influenced by the conniving and deliberate deception of these men. Very, very occasionally we find an exception, but usually that exception is a very weak effort to “improve” the KJV.

Let my reader who has abandoned the Textus Receptus ask himself prayerfully before the Lord, if he is not one of those who follow in the train of sincere orthodox men that are being “worked” on by forces or influences of which they are not aware? What a horrible way to lead souls astray! Truly Satanic in every respect. The twentieth century has seen a flood of orthodox men and women fall into this trap.

A SHOCKING ADMISSION OF DUPLICITY. A TRICK THAT WORKED TO THIS DAY.

“Also -but this may be cowardice- I have a sort of craving that our text should be cast upon the world, BEFORE WE DEAL WITH MATTERS LIKELY TO BRAND US WITH SUSPICION. I MEAN, A TEXT (WESTCOTT & HORT GREEK TEXT - parenthesis mine CJC) ISSUED BY MEN ALREADY KNOWN FOR WHAT WILL UNDOUBTEDLY BE TREATED AS DANGEROUS HERESY, WILL HAVE GREAT DIFFICULTY IN FINDING ITS WAY INTO REGIONS WHICH IT MIGHT OTHERWISE HOPE TO REACH AND WHENCE IT WOULD NOT BE EASILY BANISHED BY SUBSEQUENT ALARMS.” Life & Letters, Vol. 1, page 445

Here Hort spoke as a prophet of the Pit. The Westcott & Hort Greek text has indeed reached into places and been accepted where it ought not and would not have been accepted, if these men had published their dangerously heretical essays before their Greek text. Slowly but surely this text is being dislodged, but as Hort said, “NOT EASILY.” Its terrible damage has been done, and multitudes who think they have been freed from the shackles of Westcott and Hort, prove indeed that they really have not, by their complete trust in the Mss. which were the objects of veneration by these deceiving scholars; namely Vaticanus and Sinaiticus; and by their abandonment of the Textus Receptus, which we have seen was an object of the antagonism of Hort from his earliest student days.

AS A “MAN” THINKETH IN HIS HEART, SO IS HE

When a man is doctrinally astray, every area of life may be influenced by the fact that the Adversary has deceived him in the realm of faith. We shall now review a few examples of how Hort’s mind was inflexibly set as a result of religious error and apostasy.

HORT'S HATRED FOR YOU

SOME REASONS WHY VARIOUS GROUP AND INDIVIDUALS SHOULD NOT TRUST HORT’S THINKING AND THEOLOGY

ATTENTION ALL CALVINISTS. Hort to Ellerton Jan 19th. 1848 “He (Kingsley) has also dealt a manly blow at the central life of Calvinism.” Ibid., Vol. 1, page 64

ATTETNION ALL METHODISTS. Hort to his Father. Dec 14th 1846. “In fact his whole course lay in misrepresentation, confounding Evangelicalism with Methodism, WHICH LAST IS WORSE THEN POPERY BEING MORE INSIDIOUS.” Ibid., Vol. 1, page 49

ATTENTION ALL WOMEN OF VOTING AGE. Hort to Ellerton Match 1850 Re voting privileges for women. “Why exclude women? ... It might be expedient for a while to exclude them, as they had always been excluded; ... but this touched not my point, whether in a right and normal state of things they would not have equal political rights with men. I DO NOT THINK I EVER ABSOLUTELY ASSENTED, BUT FOR A LONG WHILE I COULD FIND NO REASON FOR REFUSING ASSENT.” Ibid., Vol. 1, page 134

Perhaps some one will now step forward and tell us why women should not vote.

A critic writes, “let us stick to the issues, and cease dabbling in personalities! It makes little difference whether Hort favored or opposed women’s suffrage in 1850 ...he actually favored it if the women were educated.” Now that was decent of Dr. Hort!

My critics should know that the very purpose of this essay is to demonstrate the deviant thinking of Dr. Hort in so many areas of life, that the sincere believer who has been led astray by his theories, may be released from the necessity of attributing a near infallibility to his judgment concerning what constitutes the “oldest and best” manuscripts, and the revisions of the Bible that are based upon those manuscripts.

ATTENTION ALL PROTESTANTS.

Hort to Westcott, Sept 23rd, 1864 “I remember shocking you and Lightfoot not so very long ago by expressing a belief that PROTESTANTISM IS ONLY PARENTHETICAL AND TEMPORARY.” Ibid., Vol. 2, page 31

Hort to Westcott, September 28th 1864 “I must take the chance of your misunderstanding me for the present, and merely state one comprehensive belief, that perfect Catholicity has been nowhere since the Reformation (strictly indeed it was cruelly injured by the Filioque, and the Athanasian Creed), and that since then we have had the pre-eminence in constitutional Catholicity, and (not ‘Rome’ but) the churches that hold to Rome in historical Catholicity.” Ibid., Vol. 2, page 31-32

ATTENTION ALL NEGROES (With reference to slavery.) Hort to Ellerton September 25, 1862 “Lincoln is, I think almost free from the nearly universal dishonesty of American politicians ... I cannot see that he has shown any special virtues or statesmanlike capacities ... (three years later he admits to growth in wisdom and nobleness in Lincoln) ... I hate it (Slavery) much more for its influence on the whites than on the niggers themselves. The refusal of education to them is abominable; how far they are capable of being ennobled by it is not clear. As yet everywhere (not in slavery only) they have surely shown themselves only as an immeasurably inferior race, JUST HUMAN AND NO MORE, THEIR RELIGION FROTHY AND SENSUOUS, THIER HIGHEST VIRTUES THOSE OF A GOOD NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. IF ENJOYMENT AND COMPARATIVE FREEDOM FROM SORROW AND CARE MAKE UP HAPPINESS, PROBABLY NO SET OF MEN IN EUROPE (UNLESS IT BE THE IRISH) ARE SO HAPPY.” Life & Letters, Vol. 1, page 458

The above sentiments constitute BLASPHEMY AGAINST THE HUMAN RACE. HAD HORT NEVER READ ACTS 10:28b?

“But God hath showed me I should never call any man common or unclean.” What outlandishly cruel and thoughtless sentiments he expressed in judging the negro slaves to be “SO HAPPY.” It would appear that he could not envision the unmitigated horror of a slave ship, filled with men and women also, who would never see husband, wife or children again. Humanity for whom Christ had died, treated so vilely. Multitudes of these would never see their home land again. Many would be used as animals by their cruel masters. Sorrow beyond description was to be the portion of the enslaved Negro.

THE BLASPHEMY AGAINST HUMANITY CONTINUES. (Still concerning Negroes)

Now we shall see that Hort was no more an accurate judge of man than he was of manuscripts. He erred every time.

Hort to Ellerton, September 25th, 1862

“Their real and most unquestionable degradation, IF ALTERED BY SLAVERY, IS HARDLY AGGRAVATED; ... NEVERTHELESS THE THING (SLAVERY) IS ACCURSED MOST POSITIVELY FROM ITS CORRUPTING POWER OVER THE DOMINANT RACE.” Ibid., Vol. 1, page 458

“While the war lasts, (Between North & South in the United States) therefore I FULLY SYMPATHIZE WITH THE SOUTH.” i.e. The slave keepers. “I care more for England and for Europe than for America, how much more than for all the niggers in the world! And I contend that the highest morality requires me to do so.” Ibid., Vol., page 459

If the foregoing represents the highest morality to Dr. Hort, what depths would have to be plumbed in order to find that which he would consider immoral?

ATTENTION ALL AMERICANS! Hort to Ellerton, September 25th, 1862 “SOME THIRTY YEARS AGO NIEBUHR WROTE TO THIS EFFECT: “WHATEVER PEOPLE MAY SAY TO THE CONTRARY, THE AMERICAN EMPIRE IS A STANDING MENACE TO THE WHOLE CIVILIZATION OF EUROPE, AND SOONER OR LATER ONE OR THE OTHER MUST PERISH ...” Ibid., Vol. 1, page 459

It is highly probable that European civilization would have indeed perished during the days of World War 2, apart from the intervention of the American people. Looking back to World War 1, it is safe to say that at this time the American forces played a vital part in the PRESERVATION OF THAT SAME EUROPENA CIVILIZATION. INCIDENTALLY THE NEGRO PEOPLE WERE WELL REPRESENTED AND GAVE A VERY GOOD ACOUNT OF THEMSELVES IN THE SAVING OF EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION DURING WORLD WAR 2.

NO AMERICAN SHOULD TRUST HORT’S THEORIES OR THEOLOGY

Hort to Ellerton. September 25th, 1862

“AMERICAN DOCTRINE ... DESTROYS THE ROOT OF EVERYTHING VITALLY PRECIOUS WHICH MAN HAS BY PAINFUL GROWTH BEEN LEARNING FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES TILL NOW AND TENDS ONLY TO REDUCE US TO THE GORILLA STATE. THE AMERCIAN EMPIRE SEEMS TO ME MAINLY AN EMBODIMENT OF AMERICAN DOCTRINE, ITS LEADING PRINCIPLE BEING LAWLESS FORCE.”

Is it possible that there is still an American theologian who loves God and his country who would trust Hort in the realm of faith, doctrine, morals, and manuscripts?

Hort's legacy of a corrupt greek test based upon corrupt and self contradictory manuscripts, which has exercised its baneful influence directly or indirectly upon the huge array of modern versions of the Bible, has resulted in millions abandoning the true Bible. The mad rush to translate our modern versions and paraphrases into scores of other languages has and will do more to hasten the downfall of America and all nations that are in this manner deceived, than any other single event.

HORT, HERETICS, & HERESIES

HORT’S AMAZING IGNORANCE CONCERNING BAPTISM

HORT TO ELLERTON July 6th, 1848

“We must not expect ever to get to the bottom of the meaning of baptism. One of the things, I think which shows the falsity of the Evangelical notion of this subject, is that it is so trim and precise ... hence I never expect to get completely round to comprehend, the idea of baptism. But I believe that we agree ... that Maurice’s view ... is the true one. Is the Holy Spirit given only in baptism? (I mean of course, not till baptism) or given before, but increased in baptism, or lastly, is it given to every human creature, and is baptism only its seal and assurance? This is a point on which I should like to have a long talk with Maurice himself ... we maintain ‘Baptismal regeneration’ as the most important of doctrines. Almost all Anglican statements are a mixture of the true and the Romish view: 2nd. the pure Romish views seems to me nearer and more likely to lead to truth than the Evangelical.” Ibid., Vol. 1, page 76

HORT TO GERALD BLUNT May 12th, 1850

“For my own part I would gladly admit to the ministry such as hold Gorman’s view, MUCH MORE SUCH AS HOLD THE ORDINARY CONFUSED EVANGLICAL NOTIONS.

If my reader will now go back and read Hort’s wild guesses regarding baptism, he will marvel that this man would call Evangelicals confused. The greatest confusion among evangelicals today is that which is created by their unquestioning acceptance of Westcott and Hort Greek text and the new Bible versions based on it; or on the almost equally corrupt Nestle’s text. In other words it would appear that Hort’s confusion is contagious.

HORT AND THE HERETICS. “DEEP CALLETH UNTO DEEP”

Re “Gorham’s” views on baptism. Hort has declared himself as ready to ‘gladly admit’ to the ministry those who held these views. But let us continue to quote from his letter to Gerald Blunt. May 12th, 1850. “I do not think that Gorham’s views would have been tolerated in the early ages. I am not aware of their existence for many centuries EXCEPT IN NOTORIOUS HERETICS.

Hort’s great sympathy with “notorious heretics” is understandable when we remember that in Vol. 1, Page 445 he refers to himself and Westcott as holding doctrines which “will undoubtedly be treated as dangerous heresy.” This of course he wished to hide until such times as the Westcott & Hort Greek text fastened itself into areas of the thought life of the scholars, from which subsequent exposure of his vast errors could not easily dislodge it.

MAURICE’S INFLUENCE ON HORT’S FATAL IGNORANCE OF THE ATONEMENT

Hort to Maurice. November 16th, 1849.

“May I take this opportunity of asking what you mean (in Kingdom of Christ first edition Vol. 1, page 45) by the phrase, “THE SATISFACTION OFFERED TO THE EVIL SPIRIT, BY GIVING UP TO HIM ALL THAT HE CAN RIGHTLY CLAIM WHILE ALL THAT IS REAL AND PRECIOUS IS REDEEMED OUT OF HIS HANDS?” Ibid., Vol. 1, page 122

Maurice’s reply was such that we find Hort, eleven years later, making the awesome statement recorded earlier in this brochure:

“I confess I have no repugnance to the primitive doctrine of a ransom paid to Satan neither am I prepared to give full assent to it. But I can see no other possible form in which the doctrine of a ransom is at all tenable; ANYTHING IS BETTER THAN THE NOTION OF A RANSOM PAID TO THE FATHER.” Life & Letters, Vol. 1, page 428

Maurice’s doctrine is primitive all right. It savours of the type of spirit worship practiced by primitive peoples who are without the knowledge of God.

HORT TO MAURICE Nov, 16th, 1849
ON THE BLOOD ATONEMENT

“Finally St. Paul’s mysterious words, ‘Without shedding of blood there is no remission of sins.’ (But I have laboured so utterly in vain to apprehend in any measure what this idea is, that I hope you will deepen and widen the hints that you have already given.” “I am quite conscious that I have given but few distinct objections to the common belief, (Redemption through the Blood of the Lamb - C.J.C) in what I have written, but so indeed it must be; LANGUAGE CANNOT ACCURATLEY DEFINE THE TWINGE OF SHRINKING HORROR WHICH MIXES WITH MY THOUGHTS WHEN I HEAR THE POPULAR NOTION ASSERTED.” (Even without the blasphemous adjuncts which too often accompany it)” Ibid., Vol. 1, page 122

The Apostle Peter teaches us that our “REDEMPTION” is indeed, “WITH THE PRECIOUS BLOOD OF CHRIST, AS OF A LAMB WIHTOUT BLEMISH AND WITHOUT SPOT.” 1Peter 1:19

HORT AND HERETICS

Gorham properly rejected the doctrine of baptismal regeneration. For this, Hort “must” regard him as a heretic. (See statement about baptism, page 23). Yet Dr. Hort would gladly admit to the ministry of those who held Gorham’s view.

Maurice, the son of a Unitarian minister was heretical. See page 12,13. Of Maurice, Hort said, “I have been deeply influenced by his books. To myself it seems that I owe to them chiefly a firm and full hold of the Christian faith; but they have led me to doubt whether the Christian faith is adequately or purely represented in all respects in the accepted doctrines of any living school.” Ibid., Vol. 2 page 155

From his own confession it would appear that Hort would be considered heretical, or at least to believe error by every branch of Christendom.

Hort Jr. says, “Maurice’s teaching was the most powerful element in his religious development.” See page 11.

Concerning another heretic. Dr. Hort boasts to Dr. Lightfoot. September 1st, 1870. “... It is, I think, difficult to measure the weight of acceptance won beforehand for the revision byTHE SINGLE FACT OF OUR WELCOMING AN UNITARIAN, if only the Company perseveres in its present serious and faithful spirit.” Ibid., Vol. 2, page 140

Hort to Westcott Aug 1870. Concerning the above Unitarian taking part in the communion service at Westminister June 2nd. 1870, Hort argues for the soundness of the decision to accept a Unitarian at the communion service. “There is the strangest blindness about the Unitarian position, and the moral damage that would have been done to the acceptance of the revision by the laity if unitarians had been outlawed as such.

NOTE: The Unitarians deny the Deity of our Lord Jesus Christ. the Bible constantly affirms our Lord’s Deity.

John 1:1 “The Word was God.”

John 1:14 “The Word was made flesh and dwelt among us ...”

1Tim 3:16 “God was manifest in the flesh...”

“HOW GREAT MUST BE THE DARNKENSS IN WHICH HE WALKS WHO ASCRIBES BLINDNESS TO THOSE WHO SEE CLEARLY.” (CJC)

What about the “twinge of shrinking horror” of which Hort speaks? We have already seen that Dr. Hort had believed numerous, “doctrines of devils.” Satan and his host of servants fear the “Blood of the Lamb” (see Rev 12:11). “They overcame him by the blood of the Lamb.” By the shedding of His blood, our Lord Jesus secured our redemption, and at the same time “spoiled principalities and powers” (Col 2:16). Blessed truth! Does the doctrine of Redemption through blood, offend one of my readers? Is there one to whom this sounds foolish? May we call upon the Apostle Paul to explain the “twinge of horror” or the feeling that it is “foolish”?

“For the preaching of the cross is to them that perish, FOOLISHNESS; but unto us which are saved it is the power of God.” 1Cor 1:18.

THE PERSISTENT POWER OF ERROR

The question naturally arises; “did not Hort absorb at least some of these terrible errors in his youth?”

The answer is, “yes,” in some cases that is true. We get some idea of the tragic nature of error received at an early age as we read the following quote.

Hort to a friend. November 4th, 1865. Hort’s age at this time was 37. “... during the last fifteen years, MY THOUGHTS AND PURSUITS HAVE GROWN AND EXPANDED, BUT NOT CONSIDERABLY CHANGED.” It is easily possible to trace the increasing hold of error on Hort’s mind as he develops the erroneous doctrines which he received as a younger man.

THE RELENTLESS HOLD OF ERROR IN HORT’S SOUL

At 48 years of age we find that strange mysterious antagonism to the Atonement still manifesting itself.

Hort to Ellerton. Ascension Day. 1876

“I must say .. that the idea expressed in the hymn, “Still ... His prevailing death He pleads” has no apostolic warrant, and cannot even be reconciled with apostolic doctrine.”

Our Lord Jesus at times rebuked his ecclesiastical enemies with the words, “Have ye not read?” Well might these words apply to Dr. Hort.

Have you not read, Hebrews 7:25. “Wherefore He is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by Him; seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them.” Had Dr. Hort not forsaken his Mother’s teaching, he never would have become hopelessly entangled in doctrines of demons. Proverbs 1:8. FIRMER FOUNDATIONS INDEED!!! HE HAD NOT FOUND ANY REAL FOUNDATION FOR HIS MISPLACED FAITH, CERTAINLY NOT IN THE SCRIPTURES.

Further scriptural evidence for the thought of Christ’s intercession is found in Hebrews 9:24. “For Christ ... but into Heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us.

BIBLICAL SANCTION FOR WARNING CONCERNING HERETICAL TEACHERS

1Timothy 1:19-20 “Holding faith, and a good conscience; which some having put away concerning faith have made shipwreck. OF WHOM IS HYMENAEUS AND ALEXANDER: WHOM I HAVE DELIVERED UNTO SATAN, THAT THEY MAY LEARN NOT TO BLASPHEME.”

2Timothy 2:17-18 “And their word will eat as doth a canker; OF WHOM IS HYMENAEUS AND PHLETUS; who concerning the truth have erred, saying that the resurrection is past already; and overthrow the faith of some.”

2Timothy 1:15 “This thou knowest, that all they which are in Asia be turned away from me; OF WHOM IS PHYGELLYUS AND HERMOGENES.”

It is clearly the duty of “Elders” to warn the flock, 1Peter 5:2; when they are aware that men have taught false doctrine, and made shipwreck of their own faith, and also to name the particular heresy, as well as the names of those who have turned away from the faith as the Lord gave it to the world through the Apostle Paul and others.

REVIEW

THIS PAPER IS A SOLEMN WARNING.

ATTENTION ALL CHRISTAINS, ESPECIALLY, PASTOS, ELDERS, DEACONS, EVANGELISTS, BIBLE TEACHERS.

HE BEING DEAD, YET SPEAKETH.” Hebrews 11:4

That which was said of Abel, as quoted above, may also be said of Dr. Hort, but with what vastly different emphasis on that which was spoken. Abel who worshipped the Lord with his eye on a bleeding sacrifice; is said to have “offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain.” Cain obviously had his own idea of how to worship God without shedding of blood. His religion worked itself out in the murder of his brother. No doubt the blood atonement also caused him “a twinge of horror” when he talked with Abel.

Abel had the witness within himself that he was righteous, before God, because of his sacrifice offered on his own behalf. Note that the sacrifice was offered UNTO GOD: NOT UNTO THE DEVIL.

IS IT THEN POSSIBLE?

Is it then possible, that Dr. Hort, who on his own confession, condemned many leading doctrines of the popular theology who was,

a convinced follower of Darwin’s imagination,
a man who could discern little difference between Mary worship and Jesus worship,
shuddered at the thought of the atonement by blood,
dabbled in the occult,
erred so terribly regarding baptism,
considered negroes to be “just human and no more” and their highest virtues those of a good New-foundland dog,
who prayed for the destruction of the American Union,
who erred in many other areas of thinking and theology,

TO BE A SAFE GUIDE FOR CHRISITANS?

CAN THE BIBLE VERSIONS WHICH ARE BASED UPON THE TWO MSS. WHICH HORT EXALTED TO HIGHEST AUTHORRITY, (VATICANUS AND SIANITICUS) POSSIBLY BE TRULY FROM THE “OLDEST AND BEST MANUSCRIPTS?” Could Hort be right in his thinking in regard to manuscripts when he was so fatally wrong in doctrine and thinking?

Think of the controversy, the heartache, and the divisions caused by the new Bible versions; and remember that Dr. Hort deliberately deceived his readers.

In Vol. 1, page 400, Hort speaks of “influences” that were working on orthodox men, unknown to themselves, forces which would bring them even as these influences had brought Hort, from the place of evangelical belief in fundamental doctrines, into indescribably confusion and error. Yes “Hort being dead, yet speaketh.” But most of what he says in his personal letters is a far cry from the doctrines which are “most surely believed among us!”

Many doctrines as outlined in Dr. Hort’s letters may well be classified as “Damnable heresies.” 2Peter 2:1-2 “But there were false prophets also among the people, even as there shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresises, even denying the Lord that bought them, and shall bring upon themselves swift destruction, And many shall follow their pernicious ways; by reason of whom the way of truth shall be evil spoken of.

Let every reader who uses and trusts the new Bible versions know that the doctrinal changes which are being accepted as true, are quite in accord with the thinking and theology of Westcott and Hort. In many cases they fought against the best scholarship on their own translating committee (Prebendary Scrivener) in order to bring in those changes.

Let every orthodox Bible believer know of a surety that the modern Bible versions are being used to bring the same “influences” which governed Dr. Hort’s thinking and theology, into effect in you life. The fact that some one at this point might feel his or her soul flame with indignation at what is here written, is strong evidence that such a one, though orthodox, is being acted on “unawares” by the very same “occult influences” that led him to wretched conclusions concerning the Atonement, and many other errors. Furthermore, those influences are working precisely as Hort prophesied that they would, and as he so earnest desired, that Orthodox men and women would abandon the evangelical Bible believing position, even as he had done. Hort has succeeded beyond the wildest expectations that he could have possibly dreamed of. Heaven weeps, Luke 19:41; Hell laughs.

ONE HUNDRED ENGLISH VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE, AND THE OCCULT

Consciously and unconsciously multitudes of moderns are being influenced by the occult. Here is a revealing item from a late 20th. century movement, in which the writer detects the plan of the evil one. It takes us back to the garden of Eden and we hear the hiss of the Serpent who is president of the world renowned, “Yea hath God said?” society. Gen 3:1

SATAN’S PLAN TO DESTROY THE CHURCH AND THE BIBLE

In effect the plan is stated as follows, “We have succeeded in completely depersonalizing the bible, having shattered into scores of fragments, and have recomposed it in a rational manner.” THE FOUNDATION IS LAID IN OUR DAY Many of us now living have seen the supernatural upsurge of new Bible versions. Each one contradicts the best English version ever produced, (THE KING JAMES VERSION - KJV) and every one contradicts the other in a mad scramble to reach the minds and the money of the people of God.

We gaze with proper disdain at the scores of competing English versions, and prayerfully wonder how any true Christian should publish or trust such corruption of the Word of God. We also marvel that Christians would tolerate such a proliferation in our English language, while knowing that several hundred million people do not have a single word of the scriptures in their own language. How shall we give an account to our God for such unmitigated selfishness? Most certainly the Holy Spirit has not led the church into such an unholy imbalance. 1Timothy 6:10 might supply the motive on the human level. 2Corinthians 4:2 explains what is happening in the realm of the attack of Satan on the Word of our God.

THE DECEIVED

So far as those who are accepting version after version are concerned, their grasp of Bible truth is being swiftly shattered, as they allow in their minds and ministry the plan of the occult to succeed. For them the true Bible lies shattered, as we read above, segregated of its unity.

THE DEVIL REVEALS HIS PLAN

THE YEA HATH GOD SAID SOCIETY?
Part two of the plan

The reader would bear in mind, that in the garden of Eden, the Serpent (whom we are told the Devil. Rev 20:2) destroyed faith in the heart of Eve, and brought every evil thing into the world. He did this by indicating that the actual Word of God, was too difficult for Eve to understand. He would kindly paraphrase it for her. He would help her to understand what God meant. Can you not hear him?

“Now Eve God does not really mean, ‘Thou shalt surely die.’ Let us put that reading in the margin of your Bible. A much older manuscript reads, ‘Ye shall NOT surely die.’ Now do you not feel better about sin and disobedience to the plainly revealed will of God? Oh! by the way Eve, you seem a little hesitant about believing me when I say God did not mean what He said, I assure you that I have a very profound knowledge of the ‘original Hebrew’ and all other languages which will one day be spoken on the earth, but especially I want you to know that I have majored in Greek, so your descendants can trust the eternal welfare of their never dying souls to my interpretation of what God hath said ... Eve look! how beautiful I am, God made me this way, trust me ..."

[Under his breath] “I surely hope that Eve does not discover that I have sought to usurp the throne of the son of God, and I most fervently hope that her descendants will never know that the theologians that I shall deceive, will ridicule the virgin birth of Christ, will cast doubt upon His bodily resurrection, and like myself will shudder with horror when the precious Blood of Christ is taught as being the very heart of God’s true plan of redemption. I know what I shall do to her descendants. In the time of the end of the age, I shall bring forth documents, which shall be written and preserved in places that I have under control, and shall use them to fragment the true Scriptures into scores of variant versions.”

“Then when the church and the world is in complete confusion and no more able to distinguish just which is the Word of God, I shall call for a great New Internationally accepted version, a world Bible if you please, but it shall be reconstructed rationally to its unity. I shall prepare scholars for this great task. They will be men who without any reason whatsoever shall abandon the testimony of the vast majority of the Greek manuscripts which at that time shall have been preserved by God, and using a handful of these ancient manuscripts which are so completely contradictory one to another, they will bring forth scores of new translations. I shall enlist the help even of sincere Bible believers by having them asked to write a testimony in favour of each new version. I know human nature well enough to be certain that many sincere men will be flattered at the thought of appearing scholarly, and they will identify themselves with scholarship and readings, which otherwise they would reject. I shall have the requests so timed that these men will not have the time to examine the version thoroughly before they commend it. In this way their testimony and undoubted love for the Lord will assist me; THE PRESIDENT (WORLD WIDE) OF THE YEA HATH GOD SAID? SOCIETY.

Now I know that these orthodox but rational (Life & Letters, Vol. 1, page 400) men upon whom I shall be acting, using spiritual influences of which they will not be aware, having once identified themselves with my corrupted manuscripts and versions will be too proud to acknowledge that they have erred. I will arrange it so that they will refuse outright an open discussion or debate on the subject, and eventually with their conscience finally quieted, and seared will go on defending and teaching the very errors of which they will have become guilty.

“BY ALL MEANS I MUST MAKE THEM BELIEVE THAT GOD’S STERN WARNING IN REVELATION 22:18-19 APPLY ONLY TO THAT BOOK, AND I FERVENTLY TRUST THAT THEY WILL NEVER READ DEUTERONOM’S WARNING.(Deut 4:2) HOWEVER, IF THEY READ PROVERBS 30:62 AND UNDERATAND IT MY PLAN WILL UTTERLY FAIL, ESPECIALLY IT WILL BE SO IF THEY READ JOHN 8:44 AND DISCOVER JUST WHO IS THE FATHER OF ALL LIARS."

“I shall watch with fiendish delight while men who were once truly orthodox shall begin to trust the scholarship of men who themselves tremble and fear at the thought of an atonement worked out by the blood of the Lamb, are moved over fromt he evangelical fundamental christianity to end time world religious movements. If possible I shall have those world movements support and promote unrest and bloodshed in many nations. I shall lead men finally to the place where the worst sort of sexual perversion will be acceptable in a deteriorated ministry ... 'I SHALL BE LIKE THE MOST HIGH’ ... (Isaiah 14:14) I SHALL EVEN ASK THE SON OF GOD TO FALL DOWN AND WORSHIP ME. (Luke 4:7)”

THE FOREGOING, A FANATASY?

Perhaps so, but it is inconceivable that the powers of darkness should work to bring destruction to humanity without a masterplan for the diabolical work.

The world is also hearing the rumblings of discontent from the religious community. Even the promoters of the many and varied modern bible versions are beginning to feel the shame of the division created by their errors. We are now seeing the commencement of what will soon be a great religious movement to standardize the Bible. The call will be for a “Standard Version” or an “International Version” acceptable to all denominations and cultures! and eventually a “universal” religious book for all people in the coming “World Federation.” In that Holy (?) book, the Lord Jesus will be completely dedeified, and will be placed on a level with founders of great religious movements. We see the trend to remove the truth of the Deity of our Lord Jesus in the new readings in almost every modern version of the Scriptures.

THE INTELLECTUAL APPROACH TO SUBVERTING THE CHURCH

If I may be permitted to proceed just a little further with the “fantasy” concerning the thinking in the heart of the Devil it might have been something like this.

“As a final factor in the setting aside of the true Word of God, I shall convince multitudes that it is a sign of being an intellectual when a person follows the theories of scholars that I have deluded. I shall hold the thought of intellectualism so brightly before them that their power of Biblical reasoning will be completely destroyed. After all, what scholar will ever want to be thought of as not being an intellectual. This will be my greatest weapon.

AN ANSWER TO INTELECTUALISM

IT IS NOT INTELLECTUAL FOR A SCHOLAR TO ACCEPT A THEORY AS IF IT WERE A FACT. THAT IS STUPIDITY! TO TEACH A THEORY AS IF IT WERE A FACT IS OUTRIGHT DECEPTION!

THE PROBLEM OF THE SCIENTIFIC WORLD

MILLIONS UNABLE TO DISTINGUISH BETWEN THE TRUTH OF GOD’S WORD AND THE THEORIES OF DR. HORT, (WHO WAS HIMSELF THOROUGHLY DELUDED BY DARWIN’S THEORY) WHOSE THEORIES LEAD RAPIDLY ONWARD TO APOSTASY.

THE DEATH OF HORT. Age 64.

A scholar writes; “The facts are; his death in 1892 resulted from influenza, weakness, fatigue and depression, but it was described quite differently by his son, ...”

An ominous portent of things to come first caused a complete collapse when Dr. Hort was thirty four years of age. It is described simply as follows. “There was no organic disease, but a thorough enfeeblement of brain and spine, from which came other secondary disorders connected with circulation.” Life & Letters, Vol. 1, page 378

CONCLUSION

THE PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER

The writer presents this study without malice or ill will to any, but with a heart's cry to God for the deliverance of multitudes of Christian men and women and young people who are floundering and sinking in a sea of error. Men and women who have accepted the thinking, theories and theology of Westcott & Hort without knowing scripturally the "Doctrine, manner of life, purpose, and faith" of the men whose greek text they follow are fatally deceived.

WHAT ABOUT THE “ECLECTIC” TEXTS?

First the liberal, and later the fundamental scholarly exposures of the erroneous nature of the theories of Westcott & Hort have been so extensive that an increasing number of scholars are admitting those errors, and abandoning in whole or in part, any connection with Westcott and Hort.

The cry of the United Bible Societies and others is now, “The Greek text used in this translation is an eclectic one.” In effect, the translators choose any reading from virtually any manuscript which may secure the approval of the board for that particular reading. In this way Westcott & Hort, who are being more an more thoroughly discredited, do not appear in the picture.

NO DELIVERANCE FOUND IN THE “ECLECTIC METHOD”

The careful reader of the new “eclectic” text translations will not have read far, before hearing the unmistakable clank of the chains of Westcott & Hort. Obviously “Vaticanus,” rescued from the obscurity of the Vatican, and Sinaiticus, rescued in part from a waste paper basket in the monastery of St. Katherine on the slopes of Mt. Sinai, still dominate the thinking of the scholars who claim to be set free from the thinking of Westcott and Hort.

WHY NO DELIVERANCE?

We have not far to look for the answer. The Textus Receptus, from which we derive our English King James Version, reliably represents the readings of the vast majority of all Greek manuscripts. Any new Bible version has nowhere else to go for manuscripts. Any new Bible version has nowhere else to go for manuscript support, except to Vaticnaus and Sinaiticus, plus a very small number of manuscripts which constitute the principal basis for the new versions. At this point we come face to face with the preferences and thinking of Westcott & Hort. There is no escape.

IN CONCLUSION

The writer has sought to set before his readers, the real thinking of Dr. Hort. According to his biographer, it is in his letters that that real thinking of this scholar is revealed. Let us recall the warning issued by his son at the very first, concerning the fact that the thoughts set fourth in his letters were not all meant for publication. However Hort Jr. has published these personal letters and in so doing has performed a great service for Bible believers. A service which he no doubt did not anticipate.

Part two of this subject, if the Lord enables, will deal with the thinking of Dr. Hort’s collaborator, Brooke Foss Westcott.

NOTE: Capital letters for emphasis throughout the essay are the author’s.

Scholarly criticism indicates that in some places a more extensive quote would put Dr. Hort in a better light. A careful investigation reveals that when the quote is pursued the contentions of the essay remain essentially sound. Nevertheless, this revision has enlarged the quotes where ever it seems possible that the essay does not clearly and fairly reflect the actual thinking and theology of Drs. Westcott and Hort.

Return to the top

AUTHOR'S ADDRESS
Cecil J. Carter
825 18th Ave.,
Prince George, BC,
Canada,
V2L 3Z7
maranath@mag-net.com