The High Priestly Prayer of Jesus
(John 17)


John 17:1-5 Five times - Glorify

“Jesus spoke these words, lifted up His eyes to heaven, and said: "Father, the hour has come. Glorify Your Son, that Your Son also may glorify You,  as You have given Him authority over all flesh, that He should give eternal life to as many as You have given Him.  And this is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent.   I have glorified You on the earth. I have finished the work which You have given Me to do.  And now, O Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world was. “NKJV  Contrasted with Satan’s rebellion in Isaiah 14 with the five “I wills”.


The high priestly prayer of Jesus serves as a fitting conclusion to the upper room discourse of chapters 14-16. In verse one of chapter 17 John informs us that this prayer is to be understood as a kind of conclusion to the Lord’s teaching in chapters 14-16. “These things Jesus spoke; and lifting up His eyes to heaven, he said …” (John 17:1a). It is my personal opinion that this prayer, the longest of Jesus’ recorded prayers, was intended to be overheard by His disciples. One purpose of this prayer was to bring comfort and hope to the troubled hearts of the disciples. It may have been more effective at the moment than all the teaching of chapters 14-16. While a measure of assurance resulted from the words of our Lord in chapters 14-16 (cf. 16:29-30), much more comfort and faith would be gained in the light of their fulfillment (John 13:19; 16:4). This prayer must have done much to calm the troubled hearts of the eleven.

Let us look carefully at this prayer, then, to find the comfort that it afforded the disciples. And let us remember that it was not only a prayer for the eleven, but for Christians of every age (John 17:20).


The Prayer of Jesus for Himself


(1)  Jesus requested that He be glorified in order to bring further glory to the Father. Jesus’ petition was not to receive glory independently from the Father, but to be glorified to the praise of the Father. “… Father, the hour has Satan wanted to usurp God’s position and glory (Isaiah 14:12-14). He wanted to receive glory independently of God. Jesus prayed for glorification in order to exalt the Father.


(2)  Jesus requested the glory which rightfully belonged to Him. “And now glorify Me together with Yourself, Father, with the glory which I ever had with You before the world was” (John 17:5). When the second person of the Godhead left heaven to become God incarnate, He temporarily set aside His glory:


Philippians 2:7 “But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: This kenosis was illustrated by the washing of the disciples’ feet in John 13.


The Seven Steps down walked by Jesus in humility

Philippians 2:6-8 “who, being in the form of God,

did not consider it robbery to be equal with God,

but made Himself of no reputation*,

taking the form of a bondservant, and

coming in the likeness of men. And

being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself and

became obedient to the point of death, even the death of the cross.”


Many translators of the Bible during the Reformation and after recognized the problems with translating the verb kenow as "emptied". Men such as William Tyndale, Cranmer, the translators of the Geneva Bible and the translators of the King James Version rendered this word metaphorically or figuratively rather than literally. They, as we, endeavour to translate "as literally as possible, as free as necessary".


Translating kenow as "emptied himself" introduces problems which liberal, neo-orthodox and conservative commentators have wrestled with for years. The pages of commentaries and annotated study Bibles are filled with all manner of heresy and speculation to try to answer this question. If the word "emptied" is used, it must be asked, of what did Jesus empty Himself in order to be able to take "upon him the form of a servant" (Philippians 2.7)?


Various possibilities have been offered. Some say He was emptied of His glory. Others say it was of one or the other of His Godly attributes or abilities, such as divine privileges, divine majesty, divine power and divine nature, riches, His favorable relationship to the divine law, the independent use of His divine prerogatives, His glory or the environment of glory. Some even believe that He emptied Himself completely of His deity or Godhood. Since these explanations are not to be found in the context of Philippians 2.1-11, the only limit to speculations is the imagination. The translation "made himself of no reputation" eliminates the need for these distracting arguments.

The verb here rendered 'emptied' is in constant use in a metaphorical sense (so only in the New Testament: Romans 4:14, I Corinthians 1:17; 9:15; II Corinthians 9:3) and cannot here be taken literally.

I Corinthians 1:17 “For Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel: not with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ should be made of no effect.”


2 Cor 9:3  “Yet have I sent the brethren, lest our boasting of you should be in vain in this behalf; that, as I said, ye may be ready.” He did not "empty"; He "took on" the form of a man -- i.e., was fully God and fully man -- God manifest in the flesh.

Warfield, The Person and Work of Christ], pp. 42f.)...



Our Lord did not lay aside any of His deity, but rather added perfect humanity to His deity. When the work of the cross was completed the glory which was momentarily laid aside was given back to Him. This, in part, is that which Jesus requested in His prayer.



(3)  Jesus’ glory was earned at the price of the cross. In addition to the restoration of the glory which our Lord possessed prior to His incarnation, there is additional glory which was earned by His earthly life and ministry. He had glorified the Father by His earthly life of obedience and submission (John 17:4). He was glorified, along with the Father in the salvation of men by His work on the cross (John 17:2-3). It is because of Christ’s willingness to set aside the glory that was rightfully His in order to save sinful men that the Father gave Him even greater glory.


“Therefore also God highly exalted Him, and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven, and on earth, and under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father” (Philippians 2:9-11).


(When “Kenosis” is studied in Phil 2:7, we must also look at “Pleroma” Col 1:19 “For it pleased the Father that in Him all the fullness should dwell,”NKJV).


The matter of suffering and glory must be kept in proper perspective. The Christian experience is not one of grim determination which causes one to face a life of suffering and sorrow with glory to follow later. The Christian life is the abundant life (John 10:10b). It is one of joy and peace.

Nevertheless, trials (James 1:2-4,12), persecution (John 15:18ff.; 2 Timothy 2:12) and suffering (Philippians 1:29) are an inseparable part of the Christian experience. In times of difficulty, our faith is deepened (James 2:3), our fellowship with God is enriched (Philippians 3:10) and we experience deep joy in the midst of difficulties (John 17:13; 1 Peter 4:13; 2 Corinthians 12:10). In suffering and adversity we come to appreciate God as our great reward, as well as our rewarder. When all of our human resources have been spent, we find our sufficiency in Christ alone (2 Corinthians 12:9-10).

Our promise is: 2 Cor 3:18 “But we all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as by the Spirit of the Lord.” NKJV

The flip side to glory is suffering. If then we are to move from glory to glory, between these moves lies sufferings & trials. There are also the bitter experiences of suffering and sorrow. These the Lord sweetens with His presence and peace, blending the bitter and the sweet in such a way as to bring about His glory and our good (Romans 8:28). There is no lifestyle more desirable than that of the disciple. There is none more difficult. But He gives greater grace to meet life’s trials and provides His strength for our weaknesses (2 Corinthians 12:9).


The prayer of our Lord reveals that He has already glorified the Father by His earthly life and ministry (verse 4). But now the hour of His death had come (verse 1). As He had glorified the Father by His life, now He prays that He might do the same in His death.


The Prayer of Jesus for His Disciples

John 17:6-19

6 "I have manifested Your name to the men whom You have given Me out of the world. They were Yours, You gave them to Me, and they have kept Your word. 7 Now they have known that all things which You have given Me are from You. 8 For I have given to them the words which You have given Me; and they have received them, and have known surely that I came forth from You; and they have believed that You sent Me. 9 I pray for them. I do not pray for the world but for those whom You have given Me, for they are Yours. 10 And all Mine are Yours, and Yours are Mine, and I am glorified in them. 11 Now I am no longer in the world, but these are in the world, and I come to You. Holy Father, keep through Your name those whom You have given Me, that they may be one as We are. 12 While I was with them in the world, I kept them in Your name. Those whom You gave Me I have kept; and none of them is lost except the son of perdition, that the Scripture might be fulfilled. 13 But now I come to You, and these things I speak in the world, that they may have My joy fulfilled in themselves. 14 I have given them Your word; and the world has hated them because they are not of the world, just as I am not of the world. 15 I do not pray that You should take them out of the world, but that You should keep them from the evil one. 16 They are not of the world, just as I am not of the world. 17 Sanctify them by Your truth. Your word is truth. 18 As You sent Me into the world, I also have sent them into the world. 19 And for their sakes I sanctify Myself, that they also may be sanctified by the truth (Note 1).”  NKJV


From His request concerning Himself our Lord quickly turned to the needs of His disciples, for it is in them that He had been glorified (verse 10). And it was in them our Lord would be glorified after His resurrection and ascension.

The request of the Lord Jesus was founded upon several factors.

First, He accomplished His earthly task of revealing the Father to the disciples (verse 6-8). It is interesting to note how positively the faith of the disciples is stated. I believe the perspective of the Savior throughout this prayer is from the other side of the cross. Our Lord assumed the fact of His death, burial, resurrection and ascension. From the other side of the cross the disciples would be fully assured concerning all Jesus said and did to reveal the Father to them.


Second, our Lord assumed the consummation of His ministry in the work of the cross. Our Lord prayed, “Holy Father, keep them in Thy name, the name which Thou hast given Me, (Acts 4:12) that they may be one, even as we are” (John 17:11b). The request of Jesus is based upon the name which the Father has given to Him. In Philippians chapter two we are told that, as a result of His humiliation and obedience unto death, the Father gave Him a name above every other (Philippians 2:9). That name, I believe, is the name Jesus (Philippians 2:10). Jesus (or its Old Testament counterpart, Joshua) meant ‘Yahweh is salvation.’


The name of a person in the days of our Lord represented a person’s character. The character of our Lord in His earthly life and ministry is well depicted by the name, Jesus. It is on the basis of our Lord’s character as God’s Savior for man that this prayer of our Lord is grounded.


Third, our Lord’s prayer is based upon the fact that those for whom He prayed were true believers: “I ask on their behalf; I do not ask on behalf of the world, but of those whom You have given Me; for they are Yours (John 17:9). The disciples were believers because they belonged to the Father and were given to the Son (17:6,9-10). They were believers also because they came to faith in the person of Jesus Christ as the One sent from God (17:8).

The Lord’s petition on behalf of His disciples was that the Father keep them: “Holy Father, keep them in Thy name …” (John 17:11b). This keeping was done by the Lord while He was with His disciples (verse 12), but now He is returning to the Father (verses 11,13). The keeping of the disciples has several facets:


(1) The keeping for which Jesus prayed involved the security of His followers. Our Lord had already spoken to His disciples concerning the frailty of their faith under fire (John 13:38; 16:31-32). Keeping is God’s work, not ours. It is ours to abide (chapter 15), and His to keep.


(2)   The keeping of the disciples involved giving them joy in the midst of the world’s hatred and opposition, verses 13-14. They were not of the world, just as the Savior was not. Consequently, the world would hate them and oppose them. The Father’s keeping included joy and steadfastness in this opposition.



(3)   The keeping of the Father included protection against the attacks of Satan, verse 15. “I do not ask Thee to take them out of the world, but to keep them from the evil one.” Our Lord’s prayer does not guarantee that we will be kept from Satan’s attack (Ephesians 6:10ff.; 1 Peter 5:8), (Luke 10:19, 2Thess 3:3, Psalm 121:7) but that we will be preserved in times of Satanic opposition. God does not promise we will avoid testing, but that we will endure it.


(4)   The keeping of the Father includes the sanctification of the believer. “Sanctify them in the truth; Thy word is truth” (John 17:17). This sanctification is a far cry from mere separation. This spacial view of holiness was held by the Pharisees. They were only concerned with external separation (cf. Mark 2:15-17). Their ideas stemmed largely from a misconception of Old Testament sanctification. God, however, is not impressed with externalism, but with the condition of the heart (cf. Matthew 6:1-18; 23; Luke 16:15).



Some branches of Christianity of our present day equate sanctification with mere separation. We think we are holy ‘because we never allow ourselves the occasion to be in the world. We hide behind church walls as though the church building was a fortress against worldliness. We spend all of our time in church activities so that we cannot be among the lost. This is not sanctification. There is a great difference between being ‘in the world’ and being ‘of the world.’ Billy Graham once defined it as the difference between isolation and insulation.


There is no better illustration of sanctification than that of our Lord Jesus Christ (verses 16-19). Our Lord was physically untouched by man’s sin in the sanctity of heaven. There, God was untouched by the sins of men. But He left the blessedness of heaven in order to remove the blemish of sin from men. Even as the Holy God was no less holy for entering a sinful world, neither are we for living in the world. This is our calling (verse 16).


If our sanctification is not made complete in separation, what is it? We can see it best defined in the work of our Lord. “And for their sakes I sanctify Myself, that they themselves may be sanctified in truth” (John 17:19). Daniel lived in Babylon all of his adult life. However Babylon did not live in Daniel, not for one day. Ultimately, this sanctification took Jesus to the cross of Calvary. And it was this work of the Son which assures the sanctification of every saint.


We are sanctified by the work of Christ on the cross. We are also sanctified by the Word of truth (verse 17). As we trust in the Lord Jesus and devote our hearts to do His will we can live holy and blameless lives in the midst of a sinful world.


The Prayer of Jesus for All Believers

The petition of the Lord Jesus for all believers primarily concerns Christian unity:



John 17:20 "I do not pray for these alone, but also for those who will believe in Me through their word;” NKJV


“John 17:21-24 …”that they all may be one, as You, Father, are in Me, and I in You; that they also may be one in Us, that the world may believe that You sent Me. 22 And the glory which You gave Me I have given them, that they may be one just as We are one: 23 I in them, and You in Me; that they may be made perfect in one, and that the world may know that You have sent Me, and have loved them as You have loved Me.” NKJV

It is vital that we recognize the vast difference between unity and uniformity. Unity is best demonstrated in diversity; uniformity is threatened by diversity.


Our Lord chose as disciples men who were radically different in temperament, personality and political philosophy. It was because of their glaring differences that their unity was so evident. (for example: Simon the Zealot & Matthew the Roman tax collector. Also the Bible with commentaries written by Salem Kirban (born-again Palestinian Arab) and Dr. Daniel Cohen, (Messianic Jew) – what a testimony to this world!


In the 12th chapter of 1 Corinthians, Paul teaches that diversity is not opposed to unity; it is essential to it. How could the body function rightly if every member were an eye, or an ear, or a mouth? True unity demands diversity, and diversity displays true unity. Marriage could be used to further illustrate this principle.


I say this because some churches seem to be trying to turn out ‘cookie cutter Christians’ who look alike (dress codes), think alike (creedal codes, often concerning non-essentials) and act alike (codes of conduct). Sad to say, such legalism does not display true unity, nor does it constitute true spirituality. It simply teaches Christian conformity. But when the peer group changes, so does creed and conduct. This is all too frequently seen as our young people go off to college. We have not taught them to think, but to conform.

If unity is not to be found in uniformity, it is to be seen in union. “I in them, and them in Me that they may be perfected in unity, that the world may know that Thou didst love Me” (John 17:23). The unity of the trinity is unity of being, of essence and of purpose. We are the children of God by faith if we dwell in God and He dwells in us (verse 23); there is then essential unity, between the believer and God, and also between one believer and every other.


Our unity, then, does not lie in nonfundamental (I did not say unimportant) factors, but in being a true believer. Unity is those teachings forming the Doctrine of Christ – These are essential. Unity should not be hindered between two believers who hold differing views concerning the details of our Lord’s return, or concerning the doctrine of eternal security (Example John Wesley and George Whitefield).


John 17:24 “Father, I desire that they also whom You gave Me may be with Me where I am, that they may behold My glory which You have given Me; for You loved Me before the foundation of the world.”NKJV


In verse 24 the Lord prayed for reunion. He will shortly be led away to His trial and execution. After His ascension He will no longer physically walk among His people, until they are reunited with Him. It is for this reunion that our Lord prayed.


Finally, in verses 25 and 26, Jesus prayed He might continue to minister to His own, even in His physical absence. “John 17:25-26

O righteous Father! The world has not known You, but I have known You; and these have known that You sent Me. And I have declared to them Your name, and will declare it, that the love with which You loved Me may be in them, and I in them."  NKJV


He desired to continue to reveal Himself in them and to abide in them. This I take to be the substance of His request in verse 26.

It is a great prayer which our Lord allowed His disciples to overhear in their hour of anxiety and distress. It is little wonder that the Spirit of God has preserved it for us as well.



Before we leave this prayer of our Lord, let us focus our attention on it so far as we are instructed by this prayer about prayer.

(1)   The Presuppositions of This Prayer. A prayer such as this one cannot be made apart from several premises. First of all, it assumes the sovereignty of God in the salvation and keeping of men. True believers are those who belong to the Father and are given to the Son (verses 6,9-10). Their salvation is procured by the work of the Son (verses 2-3) in which we believe (verses 6-8).


(2)   The Power of This Prayer. While we are not specifically told so, this prayer must have had a tremendous impact on the hearts of the disciples. We can assume, since this prayer has been preserved for us, that it was intended to bring peace and assurance to our troubled hearts.


    (3) The Price of Prayer. Let us not leave this prayer of our Lord without seriously considering the price of it. Every request which our Lord made on our behalf necessitated the personal sacrifice of the Lord Jesus on the cross of Calvary. Apart from His finished work in His death, burial and resurrection and ascension, these words would be mere wishful thinking.

The price He has paid for man’s salvation is one none of us could have paid. It was paid once for all, and never needs to be paid again (Hebrews 9:24-28).

1. Summary of what the Son had done

He had completed His mission

a.      By glorifying the Father (John 17:4)

b.     By providing salvation and service for God’s elect (John 17:2, 17:12, 17:18

c.     By revealing the Person of God to men  (John 17:6, 26)

d.     By revealing the Word of God to men  (John 17:18, 17:14

e.      He was ready to die (John 17:19)


2. Request in Prayer for the future

a.      Glorify the Shepherd

b.     Edify the sheep by

(1)  keeping them John 17:11

(2)  by unifying them John 17:11

(3)  by filling them with joy John 17:13

(4)  by protecting them John 17:15

(5)  by sanctifying them John 17:17

(6)  by perfecting them John 17:23

(7)  by someday receiving them John 17:24

(8)  by filling them with love John 17:26


Note 1 Truth (Greek: Aletheia)

a) truth as a personal excellence

And that candour of mind which is free from affection, pretence, simulation, falsehood, deceit

b) what is true in things appertaining to God and the duties of man, moral and religious truth

First, He accomplished His earthly task of revealing the Father to the disciples (verse 6-8).

Second, our Lord assumed the consummation of His ministry in the work of the cross.

Third, our Lord’s prayer is based upon the fact that those for whom He prayed were true believers:


The Trials, Agony & Crucifixion of Jesus

Heb 12:2 - "Let us fix our eyes on Jesus, the author and perfecter of our faith, who for the joy set before him endured the cross, scorning its shame, and sat down at the right hand of the throne of God." 


In the last few hours of Jesus' life what did He endure, and what shame did He suffer?  The word “EXCRUCIATE” means  "excruciate", (the root of the word "excruciating") which refers to something which causes great agony or torment. The Latin roots of the word are :"ex", meaning from or out of, and "cruciate", meaning cross. The word "excruciate" comes from the Latin for "from, or out of, the cross".(Websters) 


GENERAL OVERVIEW Jesus spent the last hours before the crucifixion at several places in Jerusalem. He started the evening in the Upper Room, in southwest Jerusalem. At the Last Supper, He told the disciples that His body and His blood were to be given for them (Matt 26: 26-29) He went outside of the city to the Garden of Gethesemane. He was then arrested and brought back to the to the palace of the High Priest. where He was questioned by Annas, a former High Priest, and Caiaphas, Annas' son-in-law. Afterwards, He was tried by the Sanhedrin, and found to be guilty of blasphemy by proclaiming Himself the Son of God. He was sentenced to the death penalty. Since only the Romans were able to execute criminals, He was sent to Pontius Pilate at the Antonia Fortress. Pilate, not finding anything wrong, sent Him to King Herod , who returned Him back to Pilate. Pilate, submitting to the pressure of the crowd, then ordered that Jesus be flogged and crucified. He was finally led out of the city walls to be crucified at Calvary. 



THE HEALTH OF JESUS AND DEMANDS OF THE ORDEAL It is reasonable to assume that Jesus was in good health prior to the ordeal that He faced in the hours before His death. Having been a carpenter and traveling throughout the land during His ministry would have required that He would be in good physical condition. Before the crucifixion, however, He was forced to walk 2.5 miles over a sleepless night, during which He suffered great anguish through His six trials, was mocked, ridiculed and severely beaten, and was abandoned by His friends and Father. (Edwards) 


THE UPPER ROOM OR CENACULUM The ordeal began in an upper room of a house at what we now call the Last Supper, where Jesus, in giving the first communion, predicted that His body and blood would be given.(Matt 26:17-29) Today in Jerusalem, one can visit the Cenacle or Cenaculum (Latin for dining hall), a room which is built over what is believed to be the site of the Upper Room, (Kollek) which was located on the southwestern aspect of the old city. 



GETHESEMANE: Luke 22:44 And being in anguish, he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was like drops of blood falling to the ground. From the upper room, Jesus went outside of the city walls where he spent time in prayer at the Garden of Gethesemane. The garden has many ancient olive trees today, some of which may have grown from the roots of the trees that were present in Jesus' time. (All trees in and around Jerusalem were cut down when the Romans conquered the city in 70 A.D. Olive trees can regenerate from their roots and live for thousands of years.) The name "Gethesemane", comes from the Hebrew Gat Shmanim, meaning "oil press" (Kollek).


It was here that Jesus agonized in prayer over what was to occur. It is significant that this is the only place in the KJV where the word "agony" is mentioned.(Strong's agonia = “struggle for victory”) Jesus agonizes over what He is to go through, feeling that He is at the point of death.(Mark14:34). Yet He prays, "Not my will, but thine be done." 


Of medical significance is that Luke mentions Him as having sweat like blood. The medical term for this, "hemohidrosis" or "hematidrosis" has been seen in patients who have experienced, extreme stress or shock to their systems. (Edwards) The capillaries around the sweat pores become fragile and leak blood into the sweat.


A case history is recorded in which a young girl who had a fear of air raids in WW1 developed the condition after a gas explosion occurred in the house next door.(Scott)) Another report mentions a nun who, as she was threatened with death by the swords of the enemy soldiers," was so terrified that she bled from every part of her body and died of hemorrhage in the sight of her assailants."(Grafenberg) As a memorial to Jesus' ordeal, a church which now stands in Gethesemane is known as the Church of the Agony. (also called the Church of the Nations because many nations donated money to its construction.(Kollek) 


ABANDONED BY MAN Matthew 26:56: "Then all the disciples deserted him and fled." Psa 22:11: "Do not be far from me, for trouble is near and there is no one to help." While in Gethesemane, Jesus is betrayed by Judas and arrested by the Jews. His disciples all desert Him, even at the expense of running away naked (Mark 14:51-52). He is bound (John 18:12) then brought back to the city to the court of the High Priest, which is located near the Upper room. 



Legal Errors of the Sanhedrin:

1.     It was illegal to hold criminal proceedings in the evening after the evening sacrifice. Trials could not occur on the eve of the Sabbath or Feast Days.

2.     Trials could occur only in the regular meeting places of the Sanhedrin (not in the palace of the High Priest). 

3.     A sentence of 'guilty' might only be pronounced on the day following the trial.

 4.     Deut 19:15: "One witness is not enough to convict a man accused of any crime or offense he may have committed. A matter must be established by the testimony of two or three witnesses."  Deut 17:6: "On the testimony of two or three witnesses a man shall be put to death, but no one shall be put to death on the testimony of only one witness."  Two witnesses were needed for conviction coming from Numbers 35:30. According to Matthew 26:60, only two witnesses came forward neither of which wanted to be the “prosecuting witness”.


5.     The witnesses must concur on all of the essential details. The two witnesses that came forward were unable to agree on the circumstances and the time that Jesus allegedly blasphemed. Matthew 14:57-58 indicates that witnesses were not sequestered to protect the accused presumption of innocence. (Even then their testimony did not agree.Mark 14:59). Jesus was not given the right to interrogate His accusers.


6.     Caiaphas asked Jesus if He was the Son of God, to which Jesus answered “I am”. Luke 22:70 – compelling Jesus’ own words to be testimony against Him. (Jesus had to answer the high priest: )

Lev 5:1-2

“If a person sins in hearing the utterance of an oath, and is a witness, whether he has seen or known of the matter--if he does not tell it, he bears guilt. “  NKJV


7.     The high priest tore his robes after hearing what he believed to be blasphemy. This violated another Judaic Law which charged that the youngest men would vote first with the elderly and the Chief Priest voting last in order to ensure that the older men did not influence the younger men. Also the high priest is forbidden to rent his garments as we covered. (Lev 21:10 “And he that is the high priest among his brethren, upon whose head the anointing oil was poured, and that is consecrated to put on the garments, shall not uncover his head, nor rend his clothes;”)  


8.   The Sanhedrin was without authority to instigate charges. It was only supposed to investigate charges brought before it. In Jesus' trial, the court itself formulated the charges. Under law, the Sanhedrin were not allowed to convict and put the death sentence into effect. (John 18:31) 


9.   The charges against Jesus were changed during the trial. He was initially charged with blasphemy based upon His statement that He would be able to destroy and rebuild the Temple of God within three days, as well as His claim to be the Son of God. When He was brought before Pilate, the charge was that Jesus was a King and did not advocate paying taxes to the Romans.


Roman Law (Lex Romana)

Pilate’s own wife warned him about Jesus and not to have anything to do with this innocent man. Matt 27:23


A Roman trial consists of 4 elements: indictment, examination, defense and verdict.

The Roman prosecutor or the judge could ask questions of the accused. The accused could also call witnesses in his defense. Trials were held in the day time. The Jews were unwilling to charge Jesus with blasphemy in writing to Pilate. Therefore Pilate began the citatio, bringing the accused before him. At one point in the questioning, Pilate asked “What crime has He committed?”(Matt 27:23)



Pilate washes his hands symbolically to try to show that Jesus’ blood would not be upon his hands. Pilate may have been emulating a Jewish practice by washing his hands at this point. If a murdered body is found near a town, the town elders will ceremonially wash their hands indicating that they are without guilt. Deut 21:6-7.


Pilate had the authority to release Jesus and to quell any riot of the people. Instead of enforcing Roman law, Pilate tries to absolve himself of any responsibility:

Matthew 27:24  “When Pilate saw that he could prevail nothing, but that rather a tumult was made, he took water, and washed his hands before the multitude, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just person: see to it yourselves.”




1.     Romans did not convict a man without a formal charge against him


2.     The accused was presumed innocent unless otherwise proved guilty.


3.     enforcement of Roman law was not an option open to the discretion of Roman governors. They were required to follow and to execute that law. Pilate’s actions of turning an innocent man over to His accusers, while at the same time, providing Roman soldiers and the Roman method of execution (crucifixion) makes Pilate guilty of condemning an innocent man. Tradition has it that Pilate was later exiled to Gaul where he committed suicide.


4.     As stated above, the requirement of two witnesses in agreement to merit the death penalty was not met.



PILATE'S VERDICT Mark 15:15 - "Wanting to satisfy the crowd, Pilate released Barabbas to them. He had Jesus flogged, and handed him over to be crucified."

In spite of all the charges, Pilate finds nothing wrong. He sends Jesus to Herod. Jesus is speechless before Herod, except to affirm that He is King of the Jews. Herod sends Him back to Pilate.


Pilate is unable to convince the crowds of Jesus' innocence and orders Jesus to be put to death. Some sources state that it was Roman law that a criminal that was to be crucified had to be flogged first.(McDowell) Others believe that Jesus was flogged first by Pilate in the hope of getting Him off with a lighter punishment .(Davis) In spite of his efforts, the Jews allow Barabbas to be released and demand that Jesus be crucified, even crying that ,"His blood be on us and on our children!" (Matthew 27:25).



Pilate hands Jesus over to be flogged and crucified.  It is at this point that Jesus suffers a severe physical beating. (Edwards) During a flogging, a victim was tied to a post, leaving his back entirely exposed. The Romans used a whip, called a flagrum or flagellum which consisted of small pieces of bone and metal attached to a number of leather strands. The number of strikes is not recorded in the gospels.


The number of blows in Jewish law was set in Deuteronomy 25:3 at forty, but later reduced to 39 to prevent excessive blows by a counting error (believed to be an act of mercy). (Holmans). The victim often died from the beating. (39 hits were believed to bring the criminal to the point of death.  Roman law did not put any limits on the number of blows given. (McDowell) During the flogging, the skin was stripped from the back, exposing a bloody mass of muscle and bone. Extreme blood loss occurred from this beating, weakening the victim. perhaps to the point of being unconscious. 


ROMAN SOLDIERS MOCK AND BEAT JESUS Matthew 27:28-30 (The soldiers) stripped him and put a scarlet robe on him and then twisted together a crown of thorns and set it on his head. They put a staff in his right hand and knelt in front of him and mocked him. "Hail, king of the Jews!" they said. They spit on him, and took the staff and struck him on the head again and again. Jesus was then beaten by the Roman soldiers. In mockery, they dressed Him in what was probably the cloak of a Roman officer, which was purple in color. (Mk 15:17, 20 and John 19:2, 5)

 He also wore the crown of thorns. Unlike the traditional crown which is depicted by an open ring, the actual crown of thorns may have covered the entire scalp.(Lumpkin) The thorns may have been 1 to 2 inches long. The gospels state that the Roman soldiers continued to beat Jesus on the head. The blows would drive the thorns into the scalp and forehead, causing severe bleeding. 



THE CROWN OF THORNS AND THE ROBE Genesis 3:17-18: "Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life. It will produce thorns and thistles for you, and you will eat the plants of the field." The significance of   the thorns goes all the way back to the Garden of Eden and one of the  signs of the curse.



THE SEVERITY OF THE BEATING Isaiah 50:6: "I offered my back to those who beat me, my cheeks to those who pulled out my beard; I did not hide my face from mocking and spitting."  Isaiah 52:14: "..... Just as there were many who were appalled at him -- his appearance was so disfigured beyond that of any man and his form marred beyond human likeness--"  The severity of the beating is not detailed in the gospels. However, in the book of Isaiah, it suggests that the Romans pulled out His beard.(Isaiah 50:6) .


It is also mentions that Jesus was beaten so severely that His form did not look like that of "a son of a man" i.e. that of a human being. The literal translation of the verse reads, "So marred from the form of man was His aspect, that His appearance was not as that of a son of a man." People were appalled to look at Him (Isaiah 52:13).


Jesus walked on a path, now known as the Via Dolorosa or the "way of suffering", to be crucified at Golgotha. The total distance has been estimated at 650 yards. (Edwards). A narrow street of stone, it was probably surrounded by markets in Jesus' time. He was led through the crowded streets carrying the crossbar of the cross (called a patibulum) across His shoulders. The crossbar probably weighed between 80 to 110 pounds. He was surrounded by a guard of Roman soldiers, one of which carried a titulus, a sign which announced His crime of being "the King of the Jews" in Hebrew, Latin and Greek. On the way, He was unable to carry the cross.


Some theorize that he may have fallen while going down the steps of the Antonio Fortress. A fall with the heavy patibulum on His back may have led to a contusion of the heart, predisposing His heart to rupture on the cross. (Ball) Simon of Cyrene (currently North Africa (Tripoli)), who apparently was affected by these events, was summoned to help.  The present Via Dolorosa was marked in the 16th century as the route over which Christ was led to His crucifixion.(Magi) As is the location of Calvary, the true location of the Via Dolorosa is disputed.



SUFFERING ON THE CROSS Psalm 22:16-17: Dogs have surrounded me; a band of evil men has encircled me, they have pierced my hands and my feet. I can count all my bones; people stare and gloat over me." 


In John 3:14, Jesus talks about His fulfillment of that prophecy when He says, "Just as Moses lifted up the snake in the desert, so the Son of Man must be lifted up that everyone who believes in Him may have eternal life."


Jesus refers to the events recorded in Numbers 21:6-9. The Lord had sent a plague of fiery serpents on the people of Israel and they bit the people so that many of the people died. After the people confessed their sin to Moses, the Lord forgave them by having a bronze serpent made. Bronze is a symbol for judgment and the serpent is a symbol of the curse. Whoever was bitten by a serpent and then looked at the bronze serpent, was saved from death.. These verses are prophecies that point to the crucifixion, in that Jesus would be (lifted up ) on the cross for the judgment of sin, so that whoever believed in Him should not die (an eternal death), but live an eternal life. The brazen serpent that God told Moses to raise up for the people in Numbers 21:4-9 is a type of Christ (Bronze the symbol of judgment, serpent a symbol of sin). (The people apparently kept this brazen serpent and worshipped it. Calling it “Nehushtan”, King Hezekiah ordered it to be destroyed in order to end the idolatry. 2Kings 18:4).


II Cor 5 :21 amplifies this point, in that "He (the Father) made Him who knew no sin (the Son) to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.”


It is interesting that the sign of Aesculapius which is the symbol of the medical profession today, had its roots from the making of the bronze serpent.(Metherall) This figuratively shows that Jesus is the healer of all!  Jesus is led to the place of the skull (Latin Calvary, Aramaic :Golgotha) to be crucified. The actual location of Calvary is also in dispute. At the end of the Via Dolorosa, there is a "T intersection". If one turns left, we go to the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. If one turns to the right, one goes to Gordon's Calvary. The Church of the Holy sepulcher has long been believed to be the traditional site of the crucifixion.  Gordon's location of Calvary has a possible prophetic reason for being the actual site of the crucifixion .In Genesis 22, Abraham is tested by God to sacrifice Isaac on the top of a mountain. Abraham prophetically answered his son that "God Himself will provide a Lamb",Gen 22:8. Abraham calls the place of the event "Jehovah Jireh", meaning "In the mount of the Lord it shall be seen."(Genesis 22:14) (Jehovah Jireh means “Jehovah sees” it also means Jehovah provides)If we take this as a prophetic event of Jesus' death, then Jesus' died on the high ground of Jerusalem. Gordon's location of Calvary is the highest point of Jerusalem, 777 meters above sea level

At the location of Gordon's Calvary, caves in the rock are situated which give the site the appearance of a skull. 


Jesus was then crucified. Crucifixion was a practice that originated with the Persians and was later passed on to the Carthaginians and the Phoenicians. The Romans perfected it as a method of execution which caused maximum pain and suffering over a period of time. Those crucified included slaves, provincials and the lowest types of criminals. Roman citizens, except perhaps for soldiers who deserted, were not subjected to this treatment. (McDowell)  The crucifixion site "was purposely chosen to be outside the city walls because the Law forbade such within the city walls...for sanitary reasons ... the crucified body was sometimes left to rot on the cross and serve as a disgrace, a convincing warning and deterrent to passers by." (Johnson) Sometimes, the subject was eaten while alive and still on the cross by wild beasts or thrown into the local garbage dump (In Jerusalem, that would be the Valley of Hinnon from which Gahenna, the lake of fire will be formed in the end of the age. (Lipsius) 


The procedure of crucifixion may be summarized as follows.


        The patibulum was put on the ground and the victim laid upon it. Nails, about 7 inches long and with a diameter of  3/8 of an inch) were driven in the wrists . The points would go into the vicinity of the median nerve, causing shocks of pain to radiate through the arms. It was possible to place the nails between the bones so that no fractures (or broken bones) occurred. Studies have shown that nails were probably driven through the small bones of the wrist, since nails in the palms of the hand would not support the weight of a body. In ancient terminology, the wrist was considered to be part of the hand. (Davis)


        Standing at the crucifixion sites would be upright posts, called stipes, standing about 7 feet high.(Edwards) In the center of the stipes was a crude seat, called a sedile or sedulum, which served a support for the victim. The patibulum was then lifted on to the stipes. The feet were then nailed to the stipes. To allow for this, the knees had to be bent and rotated laterally, being left in a very uncomfortable position.


        The titulus was hung above the victim's head.  There were several different types of crosses used during crucifixion. In Jesus' time, it was most likely that the cross used was a T shaped (or tau cross,), not the popular Latin, or t shaped cross which is accepted today.(Lumpkin) 


PHYSICAL SUFFERING ON THE CROSS Psalm 22:14-15: "I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint. My heart has turned to wax; it has melted away within me. My strength is dried up like a potsherd (baked clay), and my tongue sticks to the roof of my mouth; you lay me in the dust of death."  Having suffered from the beatings and flogging, Jesus suffered from a severely diminished blood supply. The verses above describe His dehydrated state and loss of His strength.  When the cross was erected upright, there was tremendous strain put on the wrists, arms and shoulders, resulting in a dislocation of the shoulder and elbow joints.(Metherall) The arms, being held up and outward, held the rib cage in a fixed end position which made it extremely difficult to exhale, and impossible to take a full breath. The victim would only be able to take very shallow breaths.



        As time passed, the muscles, from the loss of blood, loss of oxygen and the fixed position of the body, would undergo severe cramps and spasmodic contractions 


ABANDONED BY GOD -- SPIRITUAL DEATH Matthew 27:46: "About the ninth hour Jesus cried out in a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?'--which means, My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"  With the sin of the world upon Him, Jesus suffered spiritual death (separation from the Father ). Isaiah 59:2 says that sins cause a separation from God, and that He hides His face from you so that He does not hear. The Father must turn away from His Beloved Son on the cross. For the first time, Jesus does not address God as His Father.(Courson) 


DEATH BY CRUCIFIXION : SLOW SUFFOCATION Shallowness of breathing causes small areas of lung collapse.  Decreased oxygen and increased carbon dioxide causes acidic conditions in the tissues.  Fluid builds up in the lungs. Heart is stressed and eventually fails. it appears likely that the mechanism of death in crucifixion was suffocation. Furthermore, movement of these muscles was opposed by the weight of the body. With the muscles of respiration thus stretched, the respiratory bellows became relatively fixed.


Pain in the wrists and arms increased, the victim was forced to raise the body off the sedulum, thereby transferring the weight of the body to the feet. Respirations became easier, but with the weight of the body being exerted on the feet, pain in the feet and legs mounted. When the pain became unbearable, the victim again slumped down on the sedulum with the weight of the body pulling on the wrists and again stretching the muscles. Thus, the victim alternated between lifting his body off the sedulum in order to breathe and slumping down on the sedulum to relieve pain in the feet. Eventually , he became exhausted or lapsed into unconsciousness so that he could no longer lift his body off the sedulum. In this position, with the respiratory muscles essentially paralyzed, the victim suffocated and died. (DePasquale and Burch) One theory states that Jesus died of cardiac rupture." (Bergsma)


A LAST DRINK OF WINE VINEGAR John 19:29-30 "A jar of wine vinegar was there, so they soaked a sponge in it, put the sponge on a stalk of the hyssop plant, and lifted it to Jesus' lips." When he had received the drink, Jesus said, `It is finished'. "With that, he bowed his head and gave up his spirit."  Having suffered severe blood losses from His numerous beatings and thus in a dehydrated state, Jesus, in one of His final statements, said "I thirst." He was offered 2 drinks on the cross. The first, which He refused, was a drugged wine (mixed with myrrh). He chose to face death without a clouded mind. Edersheim writes:  "It was a merciful Jewish practice to give to those led to execution a draught of strong wine mixed with myrrh so as to deaden consciousness" (Mass Sem 2.9; Bemid. R. 10). The draught was offered to Jesus when He reached Golgotha. But having tasted it....He would not drink it. ....He would meet Death, even in his sternest and fiercest mood, and conquer by submitting to the full....(p.880).  The second drink, which He accepts moments before His death, is described as a wine vinegar. Two points are important to note. The drink was given on the "stalk of a hyssop plant". Remember that these events occurred at the Feast of the Passover. During this feast, (Exod 12:22) hyssop was used to apply the blood of the Passover lamb to the wooden doorposts of the Jews. It is interesting the end of this hyssop stalk pointed to the blood of the Perfect Lamb which was applied to the wooden cross for the salvation of all mankind. (Barclay) In addition, the wine vinegar is a product of fermentation, which is made from grape juice and yeast. The word literally means "that which is leavened". (Holmans) Yeast or leaven, is a Biblical symbol of sin. When Jesus took this drink, (i.e. a drink which was "leavened") it is thus symbolic of His taking the sins of the world into His body. 


Psalm 22:12-13: "Many bulls surround me; strong bulls of Bashan encircle me. Roaring lions tearing their prey open their mouths wide against me."  While He was on the cross, darkness covered the land (noon to three p.m.). Jesus, in Luke 22:53, associates those who arrested Him with the power of darkness. Where were the evil forces while Jesus was on the cross? The verses above from Psalm 22 seem out of place when first read. There seems to be no mention of "bulls" and "lions" around the cross. The verses, however, have a deeper meaning.(Courson) Bashan was an area to the east of the Jordan River which was famous for its fertility. Cattle were raised there which grew to enormous sizes. The people there worshipped demon spirits (associated with Baal) within the cattle. In 1 Pet 5:8, Satan is described as "a roaring lion...seeking those who he may devour" These verses are thus suggestive of the spiritual activity of Satan and his demons, celebrating as Jesus was suffering on the cross. 


JESUS LAID DOWN HIS LIFE John 10:17-18 "The reason my Father loves me is that I lay down my life--only to take it up again. No one takes it from me, but I lay it down on my own accord. I have authority to lay it down and authority to take it up again. This command I received from my Father."  Luke 23:46 "Jesus called out with a loud voice, 'Father, into your hands I commit my spirit'." When he had said this, he breathed his last.  The average time of suffering before death by crucifixion is stated to be about 2-4 days(Tenney).


Jesus died a quick physical death (Pilate was surprised that He had died so soon.(Mark 15:44). While many of the physical signs preceding death were present, one possibility is that Jesus did not die by physical factors which ended His ability to live, but that He gave up His life of His own accord. His last statement, "Into your hands I commit my Spirit" shows that Jesus' death occurred by giving Himself up. In John 10, He states that only He has the power to lay down His life. He proved His power over death by His resurrection. Jesus’ deliberately timed His death to coincide with the death of the last Passover Lamb\at 3pm (The ninth hour).



DEATH BY CRUCIFIXION: HASTENED by the breaking of the legs, so that the victim could not push up to take a good breath.  John 19:32-33: The soldiers therefore came and broke the legs of the first man who had been crucified with Jesus, and then those of the other. But when they came to Jesus and found that he was already dead, they did not break his legs.  CONFIRMED by a spear thrust into the right side of the heart.  John 19:34: Instead, one of the soldiers pierced Jesus' side with a spear, bringing a sudden flow of blood and water. Jesus fulfills one of the prophetic requirements of the Passover Lamb, that not a bone shall be broken.(Exodus 12:46, John 19:36)  To confirm that a victim was dead, the Romans inflicted a spear wound through the right side of the heart. When pierced, a sudden flow of blood and water came Jesus' body . The medical significance of the blood and water has been a matter of debate.


One theory states that Jesus died of a massive myocardial infarction, in which the heart ruptured (Bergsma) which may have resulted from His falling while carrying the cross. (Ball) Another theory states that Jesus' heart was surrounded by fluid in the pericardium, which constricted the heart and caused death.(Davis)  My belief is that Jesus literally died of a broken-heart when, becoming sin for us, the Father’s wrath upon sin brought His wrath on His only son. Jesus handled his human tormentors, but had His heart broken when He could not call God His Father for that time period of three hours.




The important fact is that the medical evidence supports that Jesus did die a physical death. The greatest event that separates Jesus from all others is the fact that He rose again and lives today. He intercedes for those who follow Him at the right hand of the Father.(Heb 7:25) 


APPEARANCE IN HEAVEN Revelation 5:6: Then I saw a Lamb, looking as if it had been slain, standing in the center of the throne, encircled by the four living creatures and the elders.  In eternity, Jesus will bear the marks of His crucifixion. Rev 5:6 suggests that He appears in heaven with the marks as a Lamb "looking as if it had been slain". We know that when He appeared to Thomas that He bore the scars of the nails and the spear in His side. (John 20:26-28).


FOLLOWING JESUS CHRIST Luke 9:23: Then he said to them all: "If anyone would come after me, he must deny himself and take up his cross daily and follow me."  When He was on earth, Jesus stated that , "If any man would come after me, let him take up his cross daily and follow me." (Luke 9:23)


We are challenged by the example of Simon of Cyrene. Scripture mentions Him as being the father of Alexander and Rufus.(Mark 15:21) Rufus ("a choice man in the Lord") and Simon's wife were both addressed by Paul in his letter to the Roman church. (Romans 16:13) Here was a man, who indeed carried the cross...and made an impact for Christ in eternity.


Medical evidence compiled by David Terasaka M.D.



Ball, D. A. "The Crucifixion and Death of a Man Called Jesus". J Miss St Med Assoc 30(3): 77-83, 1989.

Bergsma, Stuart. "Did Jesus Die of a Broken Heart?". The Calvin Forum, 14:165, 1948.

Bible, Amplified version. Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1964.

Bucklin, R.. "The Legal and Medical Aspects of the Trial and Death of Christ". Med Sci Law. 10:14-26, 1970.

Courson, Jon. "Why Psalms 22?" (tape) Firefighters for Christ, Westminister California.

Davis, C.T. "The Crucifixion of Jesus :The Passion of Christ from a Medical Point of View". Ariz Med 22:183-187, 1965.

DePasquale, N. P. and Burch, G.E. "Death by Crucifixion", Am Heart J 66(3):. 434-435, 1963.

Edersheim, A. "TheLife and Times of Jesus the Messiah". Hendrickson Publishers, Inc. Peabody, Massachusetts, 1993.

Edwards, W.D., Gabel, W.J and Hosmer, F.E. "On the Physical Death of Jesus Christ." JAMA. 255 (11), pp. 1455-1463, 1986.

Gonen, R. "Biblical Holy Places : an illustrated guide",Palphot Ltd. Israel 1994

Grafenberg, J. S.."Observ.Medic.," Lib.III. p.458.

Holman's Bible Dictionary, Holman Bible Publishers, 1991.

Johnson, C.."Medical and Cardiological Aspects of the Passion and Crucifixion of Jesus, the Christ", Bol Asoc Med P Rico 70 (3) :97-102, 1978.

Kollek, T. and Dowley, T. , "Next Year in Jerusalem", Harvest House, Eugene, Oregon, 1995.

Lipsius, Justus. "De Cruce. Libri tres, ad sacram profanamque historiam utiles. (3rd part Tom III. Opera Omnia. Antwerp, 1614)

Lumpkin,R.."The Physical Suffering of Christ", J Med Assoc Ala 47: 8-10, 1978.

Magi, G. "Israel". Casa Editrice Bonechi, Florence, Italy, 1992.

McDowell, J. "The Resurrection Factor". Campus Crusade for Christ, Nashville, Tenn., 1981.

Metherall, A.. "Christ's Physical Suffering" (Tape) Firefighters for Christ , Westminister, Ca.

Missler, C. "Isaiah 53" (Tape) Firefighters for Christ, Westminister, Ca.

Missler, C. "Israel Tour Book" 1995 Edition.

Pink, A. "The Seven Sayings of the Saviour on the Cross", Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 1958.

Scott, C.T. "A Case of Haematidrosis", Br Med J .1: 532-533, 1918.

Strong, J. "Strong's Concordance", MacDonald Pub Co., McLean, Va.

Tenney, S.M. "On Death By Crucifixion", Am Heart J .68(2) :286-287, 1964.

Websters Dictionary, Grosset and Dunlap, New York, 1974.





We usually always remember the last dying words of a loved one. These are the dying words of our Lord Jesus Christ on the cross. They are not His last words because He lives!


1. John 19:26-27  “When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son!” Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother!”


2. Luke 23:34 “Father, forgive them for they know not what they do.”


3. Luke 23:43 “Verily I say unto thee, Today shalt thou be with me in Paradise.”


4. Matt 27:46 “Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me?”


5. John 19:28 “…I thirst.”


6. Luke 23:46 “Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit…”


7. John 19:30 “It is finished”




 1.      Jesus was made sin with our sinfulness so that we could have His righteousness – 1 Peter 2:24 There has been disagreement among theologians over the question of whether there are physical as well as spiritual benefits that Jesus provided to us in the atonement. In ISA 53:4-5

“Surely He has borne our griefs And carried our sorrows; Yet we esteemed Him stricken, Smitten by God, and afflicted.

But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; The chastisement for our peace was upon Him, And by His stripes we are healed.”

Griefs” in Hebrew: Strong’s 02483 khol-ee’ means sickness (12), disease (7), grief (4) “Sorrows” in Hebrew: Strong’s 04341 mak’obah sorrow (12), pain (2), grief (2) sorrow & pain meant is both physical and mental. Strong’s 03510 kawab is the root. 


2.      He was punished for our transgressions that we might have His peace – ISA 53:5

3.      He bore our sickness and infirmities that we might have His health – ISA 53:5, MATT 8:17, ISA 53:5

4.      He was made a curse that we might have His blessing – Gal 3:13-14

5.      He took our poverty that we might have His wealth – 2 COR 8:9

     (Note: This is not the “health & wealth” Gospel. Jesus had an abundance – He had His   

       needs met plus. However He had no lack.)

6.      He became rejection that we might have His acceptance –Eph 1:6

7.      He became a slave so that we might have His freedom – Exodus 21:32, Zech 11:12, MATT 26:15, Luke 4:18


Jesus’ Perfect Victory over sin, death and hell

Death  Gen 2:17 Hebrews 2:9
Nakedness     Gen 3:10-11 John 19:23
Curse        Gen 3:17   Gal 3:13
Sorrow       Gen 3:17  Isa 53:3-4
Thorns               Gen 3:17-18       John 19:5
Sweat      Gen 3:19 Luke 22:42
Sword/Spear Gen 3:24 Matt 10:34, John 19:34



Adam & Jesus as “Last Adam”



Rom 5:12-19


12  Therefore, just as through one man sin entered the world, and death through sin, and thus death spread to all men, because all sinned—

13  (For until the law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law.

14  Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those who had not sinned according to the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a type of Him who was to come.

15  But the free gift is not like the offense. For if by the one man’s offense many died, much more the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abounded to many.

16  And the gift is not like that which came through the one who sinned. For the judgment which came from one offense resulted in condemnation, but the free gift which came from many offenses resulted in justification.

17  For if by the one man’s offense death reigned through the one, much more those who receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ.)

18  Therefore, as through one man’s offense judgment came to all men, resulting in condemnation, even so through one Man’s righteous act the free gift came to all men, resulting in justification of life.

19  For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so also by one Man’s obedience many will be made righteous.”


Jesus contrasted with Adam: 1 Cor 15:45-46 “and so it is written, "The first man Adam became a living being." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. “ NKJV

1. Adam introduced:           Death           Genesis 2:17         

“but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat of it you will surely die." NIV


Jesus responded:           Hebrews 2:9 “But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour; that he by the grace of God should taste death for every man.”



2. Adam - Nakedness

Gen 3:10-11  So he said, "I heard Your voice in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked; and I hid myself."

And He said, "Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree of which I commanded you that you should not eat?"


Jesus responded:           John 19:23 “Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took His garments and made four parts, to each soldier a part, and also the tunic.


3. Adam – Curse           Gen 3:17

“ Then to Adam He said, "Because you have heeded the voice of your wife, and have eaten from the tree of which I commanded you, saying, ‘You shall not eat of it’: "Cursed is the ground for your sake; In toil you shall eat of it All the days of your life.


Jesus responded:           Gal 3:13

“Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us (for it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree"


4. Adam – Sorrow          Gen 3:17

"Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will

eat of it all the days of your life. (toil in Hebrew 06093 its-tsaw-bone’

from 06087AV-sorrow 2, toil 1; 3 1) pain, labour, hardship, sorrow, toil)


Jesus responded:           Isaiah 53:3 (for the internalized feelings and thoughts of Jesus in His sufferings and death we must rely on Isaiah 53 and Psalm 22. Only the external facts of the witnesses are recorded in the Gospels.

Isa 53:3 “He is despised and rejected by men, A Man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. And we hid, as it were, our faces from Him; He was despised, and we did not esteem Him.”


5. Adam – Thorns          Gen 3:17b-18  “"Cursed is the ground for your sake; In toil you shall eat of it All the days of your life.

Both thorns and thistles it shall bring forth for you, And you shall eat the herb of the field.


Jesus responded:           John 19:5 “Then Jesus came out, wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe. “



6. Adam – Sweat           Gen 3:19

“In the sweat of your face you shall eat bread Till you return to the ground, For out of it you were taken; For dust you are, And to dust you shall return."

Jesus responded:           Luke 22:44  “And being in agony, He prayed more earnestly. Then His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down to the ground.”



7. Adam – Sword          Gen 3:24

“So He drove out the man; and He placed cherubim at the east of the Garden of Eden, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to guard the way to the tree of life.”


Jesus responded: The Sword 

"Do not think that I came to bring peace on earth. I did not come to bring peace but a sword.” Matt 10:34


The Spear John 19:34 “But one of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out.”


8. Adam communed with God hearing “the Voice of God” (Word of God). When Adam sinned his spirit was the first to die. He became a carnal man. God wants communion with the spiritual man (John 4:24  God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth.) Since man could not become spirit, the Word of God took on flesh in order to open again man’s communication with God in spirit & in truth.


When Adam sinned he stepped into the elements: temperature, time, sickness and death.


9. Adam lost dominion over the garden of God. Jesus recaptured that dominion. In John 20:14- 16  “Now when she had said this, she turned around and saw Jesus standing there, and did not know that it was Jesus.

Jesus said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping? Whom are you seeking?" She, supposing Him to be the gardener, said to Him, "Sir, if You have carried Him away, tell me where You have laid Him, and I will take Him away." Jesus said to her, "Mary!" She turned and said to Him, "Rabboni!" (which is to say, Teacher).


8. The Garden:  Adam was assigned as master & gardener in Eden:

Gen 2:8 “The LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden, and there He put the man whom He had formed.”

Gen 2:15  “And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.”  NKJV

Gen 3: 23-24  “Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.

So He drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.” God did not want man, in a corrupted state to dwell for an eternity.


Jesus agonized in a garden: John 18:1

“When Jesus had spoken these words, He went out with His disciples over the Brook Kidron, where there was a garden, which He and His disciples entered.”


Jesus was buried in a garden. John 20:13-18 (The Garden of the Holy Sepulchre)


Now when she had said this, she turned around and saw Jesus standing there, and did not know that it was Jesus. Jesus said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping? Whom are you seeking?" She, supposing Him to be the gardener, said to Him, "Sir, if You have carried Him away, tell me where You have laid Him, and I will take Him away." Jesus said to her, "Mary!" She turned and said to Him, "Rabboni!" (which is to say, Teacher). Jesus said to her, "Do not cling to Me, for I have not yet ascended to My Father; but go to My brethren and say to them, 'I am ascending to My Father and your Father, and to My God and your God.' " 18 Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that He had spoken these things to her.” NKJV


9. The Tree of life was blocked to man by the Cherubim with flaming swords. Gen 3:22. When Adam knowingly ate of the Tree of Knowledge of good & evil, man sinned leading to death.


a. Cursed is anyone who is hung on a tree Galatians 3:13  Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangs on a tree: Deut 21:23


b.     The fruit of the Tree of Life is available to us who believe on Jesus:

Revelation 2:7  "He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. To him who overcomes I will give to eat from the tree of life, which is in the midst of the Paradise of God."‘


Table of Contents