Capernaum & the First Passover

of Jesus’ Public Ministry

24     John 2:12 “After this he went down to Capernaum, he, and his mother, and his brethren, and his disciples: and they continued there not many days.”

24     NOTE: Jesus had moved His headquarters to Capernaum (meaning “village of Nahum”) out of Nazareth because a. of the rejection He had received in His hometown after preaching in their synagogue. (Luke 4:16-31)

24     b. to fulfill prophecy Matt 4:14-16 “14  That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Isaiah the prophet (Isa 9:2), saying,

24     The people who walked in darkness have seen a great light; they who dwell in the land of the shadow of death, on them the light has shined.


(Second is in Matt 21:12-13 at the conclusion of Jesus’ ministry on earth)


John 2:13-17 “And the Jews' passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem,

14  And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting:

 15  And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables;

 16  And said unto them that sold doves, Take these things hence; make not my Father's house an house of merchandise.

 17  And his disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up.” (PSA 69:9) also fulfilled (Mal 3:1, Zech 14:21)


John 2:18-21 “Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What sign do you show to us, seeing that you do these things?

 19  Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.

 20  Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and will you raise it up in three days?

21    But he spoke of the temple of his body.”

(Raise it up  - the word used for the temple building was ST. 2411“hieron”as in verse 2:14. Jesus uses the word ST. 3485 “naos” here which refers to the Holy Place and the Holy of Holies.)

John 2:23-25 “Now when he was in Jerusalem at the Passover, in the feast day, many believed in his name, when they saw the miracles which he did.

 24  But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all men,

 25  And needed not that any should testify of man: for he knew what was in man.”

Jesus knew the corrupt nature of whimsical man and that this belief was superficial, dependent on His miracles, not upon Him.


Regarding the three references in John to three Passovers, helps us to understand better the length of Jesus’ ministry.




All Jewish males were charged to keep the Passover. The Command of the Passover  Exodus 12:14   “And this day shall be a memorial to you. And you shall keep it as a feast to the LORD throughout your generations. You shall keep it as a feast by a law forever.”


1st Passover  John 2:23  “Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover, in the feast day, many believed in his name, when they saw the miracles which he did.”


2nd Passover - John 6:4-5  And the passover, a feast of the Jews, was nigh.

“When Jesus then lifted up his eyes, and saw a great company come unto him, he saith unto Philip, Whence shall we buy bread, that these may eat?” Yet Jesus was in Jerusalem for “a feast of the Jews” in John 5:1.

“And the passover, a feast of the Jews, was nigh.” This statement simply says that the Passover was drawing nigh. It does not say that Jesus, or the 5,000 He is ministering to, missed that Passover. John simply does not record attendance at it.



3rd Passover:  John   11:55-57, 12:1 The Jews' passover was nigh at hand: and many went out of the country up to Jerusalem before the passover, to purify themselves.

(In the Synoptics, only the last passover is mentioned).


Biblical Testimony to the Lamb of God

1.     Genesis 22:8

2.     John 1:29, 36

3.     Rev 5:12


B. Dialogue with Nicodemus


John 3:1 “And there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews.

2  He came to Jesus by night and said to Him, Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God; for no man can do these miracles which you do unless God is with him. (This address by Nicodemus is made in humility. For him to call any man “Rabbi” (meaning great one, and later being a most respectful term that students could give their teachers)

3  (Jesus perceived in Nicodemus, with his legalistic background, a problem he was having. Nicodemus knew that the coming Kingdom of Messiah required a man to be righteous in order to enter in. Nicodemus also knew his inability to keep all of the Law all of the time (the same struggle that Paul encounters in Romans 7. Remember that the Law consisted of justification by works – 613 laws: 248 required the believer to do something. 365 laws were prohibitions. Nicodemus is looking for what he must do to enter the Kingdom.) Jesus answered and said to him, Truly, truly, I say to you, Unless a man is born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.

4  Nicodemus (means conqueror) said to Him, How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter the second time into his mother's womb and be born?

5  Jesus answered, Truly, truly, I say to you, Unless a man is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.


John 3:9-10 “Nicodemus answered and said to Him, How can these things be? Jesus answered and said to him, Are you the teacher of Israel and do not know these things?”


Several noteworthy things:

1.     Nicodemus’ statement to Jesus: “Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God; for no man can do these miracles which you do unless God is with him.” This is an admission that some members of the Sanhedrin knew that Jesus was from God.

2.     Jesus makes this conversation difficult with His statement :” Are you

     the teacher of Israel and do not know these things?”Why does  

Jesus do this?  (We will discuss in class in another session why Jesus was curt or difficult with certain people in His dialogues with them. For now it is sufficient to say: Hebrews 11:6 “But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that comes to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him.”


3.     Verse 5 has been interpreted several ways: “Unless a man is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.”


a.     Some Christians believe that the water mentioned here is Believer’s Baptism. This would make our salvation dependent upon faith in Jesus and water baptism, e.g. the Church of Christ – baptismal regeneration.

b.    Some teachers seek to reconcile this Scripture with Eph 2:8-9 and Romans 10:9-10 by stating that “water” in this passage refers to natural birth (the ambiotic fluid in which the fetus is protected until birth when that water breaks.  This explanation is flawed. If someone did not get born in the ambiotic water of the mother, there would be no one alive to ask such questions.

c.     Using the Word of God to interpret the Word:

Ephesians 5: 25-26 “Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it;

That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word,”

A reference is made to Israelites who believed God’s promise through Moses regarding poisonous snake bites Numbers 21:8-9. Those who gazed upon the Brazen serpent (symbolic of sin and a type of Christ in His crucifixion when He became sin for us that we could have His righteousness.) (As a side note to man’s corruption and ritualistic religion, it is worth noting that the Israelites continued to gaze upon this image and made it into an idol, referred to as Nehushtan, which had to be destroyed by King Hezekiah. 2Kings 18:4)


Jesus tells Nicodemus that this world is already under condemnation. Men are not born neutral then declared unrighteous by their refusal of Jesus as Saviour. Men are born in sin, blinded by sin and live under condemnation. Jesus reveals the heart of God in John 3:16-17:


John 3:16-17

“For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life. For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved.” NKJV Notice the emphasis on faith (pistis), believing (pisteuo) in Jesus and the absence of any reference to righteous works that we must do. Righteous acts flow from a saved, regenerated heart yielded to the Holy Spirit.


Jesus returns from Judea but doesn’t travel the normal route of Jews who walked around, not through, Samaria. This shows us that Jesus, who most of all could rely on the Father’s protection with at least 12 legions of angels, Jesus walked in wisdom & prudence.


John 4:5-6  Then He came to a city of Samaria, called Sychar , near the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son Joseph.

And Jacob's well was there. Jesus, therefore, being wearied with His journey, sat thus upon the well. It was about the sixth hour. (Noon).


John 4:7-10 “A woman of Samaria came to draw water. Jesus said to her, Give me to drink.

(For His disciples had gone away into the city to buy food.)

Then the woman of Samaria said to Him, How do you, being a Jew, ask a drink of me, who am a woman of Samaria? For the Jews do not associate with Samaritans.

Jesus answered and said to her, If you knew the gift of God, and who it is that says to you, Give Me to drink, you would have asked of Him, and He would have given you living water.

John 4:16-24 “Jesus said to her, Go, call your husband and come here.

17   The woman answered and said, I have no husband. Jesus said to her, You have well said, I have no husband

18   for you have had five husbands, and he whom you now have is not your husband. In that you spoke truly.

19     The woman said to Him, Sir, I perceive that you are a prophet.

Notice how this woman changed the subject from sin to religion. She was apparently well-known in her town and despised by the wives in that town. Women usually gathered water early in the morning or later in the afternoon to avoid the noon days heat. There was also water closer to that town than Jacob’s well. She wanted to be alone when she fetched water.

20   Our fathers worshiped in this mountain, and you say that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship.

21   Jesus said to her, Woman, believe Me, the hour is coming when you shall neither worship the Father in this mountain nor yet at Jerusalem.

22   You worship what you do not know, we know what we worship, for salvation is of the Jews.

23   But the hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers shall worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father seeks such to worship Him.

24  God is a spirit, and they who worship Him must worship in spirit and in truth.

John 4:25-26  The woman said to Him, I know that Messiah is coming, who is called Christ. When He has come, He will tell us all things.

Jesus said to her, I AM, He speaking to you. (“He” is not in the Greek. Jesus said to her “Ego Eimee” or “I AM” – the Name of God.

 The Samaritan woman at the well: Progressive revelation of Jesus in response to questions coming out of faith. Notice her confessions:

 a.      She identifies Jesus as a Jew verse 4:9

 b.      She confesses that Jesus is a prophet verse 4:19 After her conviction of sin in      her life (verses 4:16-18), the woman changes the subject and asks a question                             that  Samaritans believed would be settled by the Messiah – should worship be in their temple on Mount Gerizim or in the Temple of Jerusalem? Jesus tells her that salvation is through the Jews.

cc.     Jesus responds by revealing the Father who is Spirit and desires to be worshipped in spirit and in truth. This prompts her to ask about the Messiah verse 4:25 and Jesus’ stunning reply that He is the Messiah verse 4:26

d. Jesus responds to her question about the Messiah by telling her that He is the Messiah verses 4:25-26


Why did Jesus clearly tell this Samaritan woman that He is the Messiah when He didn’t do so with the Pharisees including Nicodemus?

(Answer: Jesus meets us where we are. He will reveal Himself to the ignorant with more clarity than those claiming wisdom. With God ignorance is an excuse. We are held more responsible depending upon how much light we have been given. This was also going to be Jesus' last visit to the Samaritans so His proclamation is clear.)

John 4:40-43 “Then as the Samaritans had come to Him, they begged Him that He would stay with them. And He stayed there two days. And many more believed because of His own word. And they said to the woman, Now we believe, not because of your saying, for we have heard Him ourselves and know that this is truly the Christ, the Savior of the world.”And after two days He departed from there and went into Galilee.”


(Note the power of this woman’s testimony – The entire town went to Jesus as a result of her words about Jesus. – John 4:42) Remember. Jesus tells us in Acts 1:8 “But you shall receive power, the Holy Spirit coming upon you. And you shall be witnesses to Me both in Jerusalem and in all Judea, and in Samaria, and to the end of the earth.” Jesus wants each of us to have our own testimony of His greatness and He wants to write that testimony on the tablets of your heart.)


The Excellent Example Jesus gives us in soul-winning:

1.     Jesus refuses to argue with the woman.

2.     He avoids getting into theological concepts with her.

3.     He never browbeats her, speaks in a demeaning way to her nor judges her even though she is a great sinner.

4.     Jesus spoke of Himself as “living water” – He pointed her way to Himself.

5.     Some Christians sow seeds that another Christian reaps. Some Christians sometimes reap what another Christian has sown.


Jesus sowed here in Samaria. Later His disciples will reap in Samaria. (Acts 8)

Jesus and His disciples now return to Galilee. Jesus conducted His ministry in Galilee for several reasons:

 1.     Matthew 4:12 John the Baptist is arrested by Herod because John

     denounced the marriage of Herod to Herodias, wife of his brother,

     Philip, as adultery. Herod also feared John’s popularity with the

     people. Herod reasoned that John could easily lead people in a revolt

     If Herod arrested John, he would surely arrest Jesus. Jesus’ time had  

     not yet come, therefore He needed to keep a distance from Herod.

     Galilee was not under the jurisdiction of Herod.


2.     The message that John preached was the same that Jesus preached – 

     “Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand.” Matthew 3:2 Since

     John was arrested. His message (and that of Jesus) had already been rejected.


3.     John 4:1-3 “Therefore, when the Lord knew that the Pharisees had heard that Jesus made and baptized more disciples than John  (though Jesus Himself did not baptize, but His disciples), He left Judea and departed again to Galilee.” NKJV  The Pharisees were already attempting to sow division between Jesus’ disciples and those of John the Baptist.


When Jesus arrived in Galilee, He stated that “a prophet has no honor in his own country” John 4:44 This was the prophetic response of the majority of Galileans.


When Jesus arrived in Galilee He was well-received by the Galileans. Many of them had seen Him at the Feast performing miracles. It was presumed that the Messiah or any prophet of God would focus the center of his ministry in or around Jerusalem.


In Luke 4:15 we see that Jesus taught the people in their synagogues thus performing the work of a rabbi. Jesus taught them the Word of God and caused them to understand in ways that their rabbis could not duplicate. The teacher in Israel was to teach the Word of God and to teach the person of God. Jesus did this with more depth than any of their previous teachers. The teacher was to instruct.


Jesus is also called a preacher in Matthew 4:17 and Mark 1:14. The preacher is an exhorter and one who proclaims. Our author makes only a minor distinction between the terms “kingdom of heaven” (directed to Jews who do not use God’s name at all out of fear of blasphemy – e.g. Messianic Jews today will refer to G-D and call Him “Ha Shem” – the Name. In the other Gospels, the term “kingdom of God” is used. There is a greater significance between these terms that we will review in our 8th class session.


As a point of correction: An error is quoted by our author from one of his sources – A. M. Fairbairn. Studies in the Life of Christ p. 137

The statement:

“The kingdom of God has as its opposite the kingdom of evil, or Satan. The great empire of anarchy and darkness…”

The Correction: (1) It is wrong to think of Satan as the opposite of God and to think of his kingdom as the opposite of the kingdom of God. Satan is a created being. He is not omnipresent, omniscient nor omnipotent. (2) Satan’s kingdom is a well-functioning autocracy headed by a merciless dictator. This is not anarchy!


Jesus stayed for awhile at Cana, probably at the home of Nathaniel who lived there. (John 21:2). It was in Cana that a royal official approached Jesus on behalf of his dying son. Jesus rebukes the people in general for wanting to see signs & wonders before they would believe. Jesus tells this man that his son shall live (John 4:49-50). The man accepted Jesus’ word and, when he returned home, discovered that his son had been healed in the very hour that Jesus spoke his word to the official.


(Luke 4:16-30)  Jesus is next in Nazareth, His hometown. On the Sabbath Jesus arose to read from the Scripture. The head of the synagogue yielded to Jesus the task of reader or maphtir, who normally read from the prophets.

On this occasion Jesus read from Isaiah 61:

Luke 4:18-22

"The Spirit of the LORD is upon Me,Because He has anointed Me To preach the gospel to the poor;He has sent Me to heal the brokenhearted,To proclaim liberty to the captives And recovery of sight to the blind,To set at liberty those who are oppressed;  19 To proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD."  The part that Jesus did not read is Isaiah 61:2 in the last clause:

and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn;This will be fulfilled when the terrible wrath of God judges this earth in the “Day of the Lord” spoken of by the prophets.


Then He closed the book, and gave it back to the attendant and sat down. And the eyes of all who were in the synagogue were fixed on Him. And He began to say to them, "Today this Scripture is fulfilled in your hearing."  So all bore witness to Him, and marveled at the gracious words which proceeded out of His mouth. NKJV


Some who knew Him from His childhood took offense at Jesus’ statement. Jesus then explains to them that the message of Elijah was not heeded by Israel in his day – only the widow of Zarephath benefited from his ministry. In like fashion the message of Elisha was not heeded by Israel. The only beneficiary of this ministry was Naaman, the Syrian king afflicted with leprosy.


Jesus departed in a most subtle miracle:

Luke 4:27-30

“So all those in the synagogue, when they heard these things, were filled with wrath, and rose up and thrust Him out of the city; and they led Him to the brow of the hill on which their city was built, that they might throw Him down over the cliff. Then passing through the midst of them, He went His way.” NKJV


This is a miracle that a crowd surrounds Jesus with the intention of killing Him by stoning or by throwing him from the cliff. However the object of their wrath walks calmly through this angry crowd.



Forerunner of Messiah


Luke 1:36 indicates that John was born about six months before Jesus. Since Mary was cousin to Elizabeth, Jesus and John the Baptist were related. John was a miracle birth from the elderly couple, Zechariah and Elizabeth. John was also born into the priestly Levitical line.


There is a promise that there will be a forerunner of Messiah – Elijah. Malachi 4:5  “Behold, I am sending you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD.” 

John was described by Jesus as Matt 17:11-13  And answering Jesus said to them, Elijah truly shall come first and restore all things.

But I say to you that Elijah has come already, (the Spirit of Elijah is the Holy Spirit. By referring to Elijah here, Jesus is referencing the office of Elijah – not a contradiction in God’s Word with John 1:21) and they did not know him, but have done to him whatever they desired. Likewise also the Son of man shall suffer from them.

Then His disciples understood that He spoke to them about John the Baptist.”


Zechariah & Elizabeth lived in the hill county of Judea near Qumran. Since both were advanced in years, it is likely that both parents passed away when John was about 13 years of age. Living near the Essenes John probably received from them his education in the Scriptures and the expectancy of Messiah’s coming. He knew that he was called by God to be the forerunner of Messiah. Instead of going into Jerusalem and reviewing genealogical records to identify Jesus, son of Mary, his mother’s cousin. It was necessary that both Zechariah and Elizabeth were removed from the boy’s life so that he would listen only to the Holy Spirit regarding how he would recognize Messiah. (F.F. Bruce in Second Thoughts on the Dead Sea Scrolls). The influence of the Essenes on John cannot be proven, however John’s ability to live in the wilderness and despise sins of arrogance and hypocrisy certainly bear some resemblance to the Essenes view of separation.


Luke 3:1-2 “And in the fifteenth year of the government of Tiberius Caesar, (29AD) Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea and the Trachonitus country, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene--

Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests-- the word of God came to John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness”.  


He began his ministry in the wilderness of Judea west of the Dead Sea. He was probably east of Jericho. Later his ministry would move north to Aenon near Salim (John 3:23) in Galilee under the jurisdiction of Herod Antipas.

John addressed his preaching to Jews announcing that they should repent for the Kingdom of God is at hand. John warned that being descended from Abraham would not save them. He denied being the Messiah, Elijah (Mal 4:5) or the promised Prophet like Moses (Deut 18:15). His message was the Baptism of Repentance which addressed only the Jews in that special time just before Jesus’ public ministry.


John’s baptism is modeled from the Old Testament exhortation Ezekiel 36:25 “Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean: from all your filthiness, and from all your idols, will I cleanse you.” The Essenes used ritual washing and water.


John’s message is recorded by all of the Gospel writers: John 1:23  “He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Isaiah. (Matt 3:3, Mark 1:3, Luke 3:4)

Isaiah 40:3  The voice of him that cries in the wilderness, Prepare the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God.”


Malachi 3:1 "Behold, I send My messenger, And he will prepare the way before Me. And the Lord, whom you seek, Will suddenly come to His temple, Even the Messenger of the covenant, In whom you delight. Behold, He is coming," Says the LORD of hosts."

John’s Mission: Matthew 3:13-17 "Then Jesus came from Galilee to John at the Jordan to be baptized by him.  And John tried to prevent Him, saying, "I need to be baptized by You, and are You coming to me?"
But Jesus answered and said to him, "Permit it to be so now, for thus it is fitting for us to fulfill all righteousness." Then he allowed Him.
When He had been baptized, Jesus came up immediately from the water; and behold, the heavens were opened to Him, and He saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting upon Him.
And suddenly a voice came from heaven, saying, "This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."

The Reasons for Jesus to be baptized by John:

 I.      To identify with the three Old Testament Offices and anointings                       

Offices     Anointings   Fulfillment
Prophet – oil only     Lev 8:12      By Holy Spirit Matt 3:16
Priest – all three   with water  Lev 8:6 By John Matt 3:15
King – oil only     with blood Lev 8:23   By Himself Matt 26:28          

II.     To identify with the message of John the Baptist John 1:31-34

III.   To identify with Israel John 1:11 

IV.    To identify with sinners for whom He will die. ISA 53:12, 2Cor 5:21  

The Three-fold Approval of God:


Jesus anointed by the Holy Spirit – “And lo, the heavens were opened unto Him, and He saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove , and lighting upon Him.” Matt 3:16


Jesus has the approval of the Father: And lo, a voice from heaven saying, This is My Beloved Son in whom I am well-pleased.”Matt 3:17


First approval: Matt 3:17

Second approval: Matt 17:5

Third approval: John 12:28


Matt 4:1 “Then Jesus was led by the Spirit up into the wilderness, to be tempted by the Devil.”

 John was told by the Holy Spirit that he would know the coming Messiah.

John 1:29 – 36 " The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!
"This is He of whom I said, ‘After me comes a Man who is preferred before me, for He was before me.’
"I did not know Him; but that He should be revealed to Israel, therefore I came baptizing with water."
And John bore witness, saying, "I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and He remained upon Him.
"I did not know Him, but He who sent me to baptize with water said to me, ‘Upon whom you see the Spirit descending, and remaining on Him, this is He who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.’
"And I have seen and testified that this is the Son of God."
Again, the next day, John stood with two of his disciples.
And looking at Jesus as He walked, he said, "Behold the Lamb of God!"

After preparing the way for the Messiah, John said to his disciples who asked him why Jesus was also having people baptized, John 3: 28- 30 “You yourselves bear witness to me that I said, I am not the Christ, but that I am sent before Him.

29  He who has the bride is the bridegroom, but the friend of the bridegroom who stands and hears him rejoices greatly because of the bridegroom's voice. Then my joy is fulfilled.

30  He must increase, but I must decrease.”


John was acknowledged by Jesus as a great prophet sent by God:

Matt 11:11-15 “Truly I say to you, Among those who have been born of women there has not risen a greater one than John the Baptist. But the least in the kingdom of Heaven is greater than he. (Jesus said this because John did not know the full scope of the Gospel. Also, after baptizing the Messiah and recognizing that he must become less (John 3:30), John continued preaching repentance and coming judgment.)

12  And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of Heaven is taken by violence, and the violent take it by force. (This is not a large span of time, only through John and Jesus’ life. The violent men attempting to seize the Kingdom of Heaven by force are the religious establishment of His day to whom He addressed this remark.)

13  For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John.

14  And if you will receive it, this is Elijah who is to come.

15  He who has ears to hear, let him hear.

John was arrested by Herod Antipas at the insistence of his wife, Herodius, formerly the wife of Herod’s brother, Philip. This arrest occurred shortly after Jesus’ baptism (Around 29 to 30 A.D.) John denounced this union as adultery. Mark 6:17-20 describes the arrest of John: 

 “For Herod himself had sent out and laid hold on John and had bound him in prison because of Herodias, his brother Philip's wife. For he had married her,

18  and John had said to Herod, It is not lawful for you to have your brother's wife.

19  And Herodias held it against him, and desired to kill him, but she could not.

20     For Herod feared John, knowing that he was a just and holy man. And he kept him safe. And when he heard him, he did many things and heard him gladly. Verses 21-29 record the dinner feast and the petition made by the daughter of Herodius. Many of John’s disciples became followers of Jesus.


The Temptations of Jesus

 Jesus’ Temptations in the Wilderness. Before the ministry of Jesus, He was led by the Holy Spirit into the wilderness to be tested. From among the beasts in the wilderness came forth Satan.

1John 2:16 The Three Types of all Temptation:

“…If any man love the world, the love of the Father is not in him

For all that is in the world:

1. The Lust of the Flesh

2. The Lust of the eyes

3. The sinful pride of life is not of the Father but is of the world”


A. Eve’s Temptation & Her Sin:

1. DOUBT: ”Gen 3:1 “Is it so that God has said, You shall not eat of every tree of the garden?”

2. DENIAL: Gen 3:4  “And the serpent said to the woman, You shall not surely die,”

3. DISOBEDIENCE: Gen 3:6 “she took of its fruit, and ate.”

Adam’s sin: putting his wife higher than his relationship of Almighty God.

B. Jesus’ Temptations & Victory

Matt 4:1-11, Luke 4:1-13, Mark 1:12-13

1. The Lust of the Flesh Turn stones into bread (Miracle & self-reliance)

Matt 4:4 quote from Deut 8:3 “Man does not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.”


 2. The sinful pride of life Pinnacle of Temple – announce who you are with a miracle in the very presence of Levitical priests. Satan misquotes from the Word of God: Psalm 91:11-12 by saying Psalm 91:11-12  “For he shall give his angels charge over thee, They shall bear thee up in their hands, lest thou dash thy foot against a stone.” (Temptation to force God’s plan now.)

Matt 4:7 quote from Deut 6:16 “Thou shalt not test the Lord your God.”


Here is the phrase Satan took out of his Scripture quote:to keep thee in all thy ways.”


3. The Lust of the eyes -  Ownership over the Kingdoms of the World

Jesus responds - Matt 4:10 quote from Deut 6:13, 10:20 (“You shall worship the Lord your God and Him only shall thou serve.”)

If Jesus can be tested or tempted, before His ministry, we can easily see how temptations can befall us. (Temptation to fulfill Malachi 3:1 prematurely).

Did Satan really have authority over the Kingdoms of the earth? Yes.

Rev 13:7, John 14:30

When Jesus returned from the wilderness, He began His public ministry and began to call His Apostles.


John 1:32-45  And John bore record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from Heaven like a dove, and He abode on Him.

And I did not know Him, but He who sent me to baptize with water, that One said to me, Upon whom you shall see the Spirit descending, and remaining upon Him, He is the One who baptizes with the Holy Spirit.

And I saw and bore record that this is the Son of God.

Again, the next day afterward, John stood with two of his disciples.

And looking upon Jesus as He walked, he says, Behold the Lamb of God!

And the two disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus.

Then Jesus turned and saw them following and said to them, What do you seek? They said to Him, Rabbi (which is called, being translated Teacher), where do you live?

He says to them, Come and see. They came and saw where He lived, and stayed with Him that day, for it was about the tenth hour.

One of the two who heard John and followed Him was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother.

He first found his own brother Simon and said to him, We have found the Messiah (which is, being translated, the Christ).

And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus saw him, He said, You are Simon the son of Jonah; you shall be called Cephas (which translated is, A stone).

The day after, Jesus desired to go forth into Galilee. And He found Philip and said to him, Follow Me.

Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter.

Philip found Nathanael and said to him, We have found Him of whom Moses wrote in the law and the prophets, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.


Nathanael – One who has no guile & Jesus comparing Himself to Jacob’s Ladder.

John 1:45 - 51 Philip found Nathanael and said to him, We have found Him of whom Moses wrote in the law and the prophets, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.

46  And Nathanael said to him, Can there be any good thing come out of Nazareth? Philip said to him, Come and see.

47  Jesus saw Nathanael coming to Him and said of him, Behold an Israelite indeed in whom is no guile!

48  Nathanael said to Him, From where do You know me? Jesus answered and said to him, Before Philip called you, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you.

49  Nathanael answered and said to Him, Rabbi, You are the Son of God. You are the King of Israel!

50  Jesus answered and said to him, Because I said to you, I saw you under the fig tree, do you believe? You shall see greater things than these.

51     And He said to him, Truly, truly, I say to you, Hereafter you shall see Heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man.


Jacob’s Ladder – Genesis 28:12 records Jacob’s dream about Heaven’s Ladder and the covenant of God established with Abraham and Isaac was now extended to Jacob (supplanter), the Father of Israel (God Prevails).


With 5 disciples Jesus attends the Marriage Feast of Cana described only in the Gospel of John. 

Marriage Feast at Cana

KanaV th'" Galilaiva" This was not a very well-known place. It is mentioned only here, in 4:46, and 21:2, and nowhere else in the New Testament. Josephus (Life 86) says he once had his quarters there. Probable location: present day Khirbet Cana (14 km north of Nazareth) or Khirbet Kenna (7 km northeast of Nazareth).


2       John 2:2-11 “And both Jesus was called, and his disciples, to the marriage.

NOTE: This couple’s families were friends with Jesus’ family. Jesus was invited. However, men who had been his disciples for only days were given a general invitation, not knowing that there were 5 disciples. We get the impression that this couple was not wealthy. One reason offered for Jesus’ mother, Mary (Miriam) to approach her son was that he had brought extra guests which didn’t help the depleted wine source. Since this is Jesus’ first miracle we should not suppose that Mary was used to seeing her son perform miracles. She did, however, know that this special son was called from before his birth to be the “saviour of His people”


3  And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus said unto him, They have no wine.

4. Jesus said unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine hour is not yet come.

This is a Hebraism: The Hebrew expression in the Old Testament had two basic meanings:

(1) When one person is unjustly bothering another, the injured party may say "What to me and to you?" meaning, "What have I done to you that you should do this to me?" Examples: Judges 11:12, 2 Chron. 35:21, 1 Kings 17:18.

(2) When someone is asked to get involved in a matter he feels is no business of his, he may say to the one asking him, "What to me and to you?" meaning, "That is your business, how am I involved?" Examples: 2 Kings 3:13, Hosea 14:8.

(1) implies hostility, (2) merely disengagement. (2) is almost certainly to be understood here as better fitting the context (although some of the Greek Fathers took the remark as a rebuke to Mary; I feel such a rebuke is unlikely).


Also note that Jesus addresses His mother as “woman” indicating that He is a man no longer under her parental authority. This is how He will address Mary from the cross.


 5  His mother said unto the servants, Whatsoever he says to you, do it.

6        And there were set there six waterpots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins apiece.


NOTE: These earthen vessels (18 gallon water pots)  were probably rather ugly, used for utility not for aesthetics. They were probably kept out of sight of most of the guests as this poor couple attempts to hold their celebration without a display of their modest to poor possessions. Notice how Jesus uses these earthen vessels. He puts His word in them, signified by the water and they pour forth wine when it is taken out. This is a good comparison to what Jesus would like to do with His Word in us, his earthen vessels, Submitted to God, we can give out the Word of God which the Holy Spirit will turn into the wine of the Spirit. (EPH 5:18)


 7  Jesus said to them, Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim.

 8  And he said to them, Draw it out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast. And they bare it.

 9  When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not whence it was: (but the servants which drew the water knew;) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom,

 10  And said to him, Every man at the beginning sets forth good wine; and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse: but you have kept the good wine until now.

11     This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory; and his disciples believed on him."


Jesus moves His family and disciples to Capernaum and will operate from their as the base point for His ministry.

 2. Jesus addressed those in His home town of Nazareth after locating in Capernaum.

Luke 4: 14-24 “And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee. And a report went out throughout all the neighborhood concerning Him.

15  And He taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all.

16  And He came to Nazareth, where He had been brought up. And, as His custom was, He went in to the synagogue on the Sabbath day and stood up to read.

17  And the book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to Him. And unrolling the book, He found the place where it was written,

18  "The Spirit of the Lord is on Me; because of this He has anointed Me to proclaim the Gospel to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to proclaim deliverance to the captives, and new sight to the blind, to set at liberty those having been crushed,

19. to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord."


Note: Quotation from Isaiah 61:1-2.  Verse 2 from Isaiah reads as “2  To proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn; Jesus did not read to the end of verse 2 or else the Day of God’s vengeance & wrath would have begun.

20  And rolling up the book, returning it to the attendant, He sat down. And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on Him.

21  And He began to say to them, Today this Scripture is fulfilled in your ears.

22  And all bore witness to Him and wondered at the gracious words which came out of His mouth. And they said, Is this not Joseph's son?

23  And He said to them, You will surely say this proverb to Me, Physician, heal yourself. Whatever we have heard done in Capernaum, do also here in your native-place.

24 And He said, Truly I say to you, No prophet is accepted in his native-place.”


  In Capernaum, the beginning of Jesus’ public ministry occurred at the Synagogue. Mark 1:21-28  And they went into Capernaum. And immediately on the sabbath day He entered into the synagogue and taught.And they were astonished at His doctrine. For He taught them as one who had authority, and not like the scribes. And in their synagogue was a man with an unclean spirit. And he cried out, saying, What is to us and to You, Jesus of Nazareth? Have You come to destroy us? I know You, who You are, the Holy One of God. And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Be quiet, and come out of him. And the unclean spirit, convulsing him, and crying with a loud voice, he came out of him. they all were amazed, so as to question among themselves, saying, What is this? What new doctrine is this? For He even commands the unclean spirits with authority, and they obey Him.And immediately His fame went out into all the Galilean neighborhood."


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C. The sinful woman at the well in Sychar