“Six Days Before The Passover" (John 12:1).


This has naturally caused the further difficulty as to the Lord's statement that "even as Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights, so shall the Son of man be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights" (Matthew 12:40). Now, while it is quite correct to speak according to Hebrew idiom of "three days" or "three years", while they are only parts of three days or three years, yet that idiom does not apply in a case like this, where "three nights" are mentioned in addition to "three days". It will be noted that the Lord not only definitely states this, but repeats the full phraseology, so that we may not mistake it.

  1. We have therefore the following facts furnished for our sure guidance:
    1. The "high day" of John 19:31 was the first day of the feast.
    2. The "first day of the feast" was on the 15th day of Nisan.
    3. The 15th day of Nisan, commenced at sunset on what we should call the 14th.
    4. "Six days before the passover" (John 12:1) takes us back to the 9th day of Nisan.
    5. "After two days is the passover" (Matthew 26:2. Mark 14:1) takes us to the 13th day of Nisan.
    6. "The first day of the week", the day of the resurrection (Matthew 28:1, etc.), was from our Saturday sunset to our Sunday sunset. This fixes the days of the week, just as the above fix the days of the month, for:
    7. Reckoning back from this, "three days and three nights" (Matthew 12:40), we arrive at the day of the burial, which must have been before sunset, on the 14th of Nisan; that is to say, before our Wednesday sunset.
    8. This makes the sixth day before the passover (the 9th day of Nisan) to be our Thursday sunset to Friday sunset.

   Therefore Wednesday, Nisan 14th (commencing on the Tuesday at sunset), was "the preparation day", on which the crucifixion took place: for all four Gospels definitely say that this was the day on which the Lord was buried (before our Wednesday sunset), "because it was the preparation [day]" the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, "for that sabbath day was a high day", and, therefore, not the ordinary seventh day, or weekly sabbath. See John 19:31.



(Our Thursday sunset to Friday sunset.)






The Lord approaches Jerusalem from Jericho.





He passes our Thursday night at the house of Zacchaeus (Luke 19:5) And delivers the Parable of the Pounds.





He proceeds toward Jerusalem.





He sends two disciples apenanti for an "ass" and a "colt" (two animals).





And makes His first entry from Bethphage (not Bethany)





He is unexpected, and they ask "Who is this?"

21:10, 11




He cleanses the Temple.

21:12 - 16




He returns to Bethany.






(Our Friday sunset to Saturday sunset.)






The Lord passes the Sabbath at Bethany; and after sunset (on our Saturday), the first of three suppers was made, probably at the house of Lazarus, in Bethany





At this supper the first of two anointings took place




12:3 - 11


(Our Saturday sunset to Sunday sunset.) the Gentile "Palm Sunday".






The second, or triumphal entry into Jerusalem. He sends two disciples (katenanti for a colt (one animal).


11:1 - 7

19:29 - 35


The Lord starts from Bethany (not Bethphage) and is met by multitudes from Jerusalem


11:8 -10

19:36 - 40

12:12 - 19

He weeps over the city.



19:41 - 44


He enters the Temple, looks around.





and returns to Bethany








(Our Sunday sunset to Monday sunset.)






In the morning (our Monday a.m.) the Lord returns to Jerusalem.





The Fig - tree cursed.

21:19 - 22

11:13 , 14



The Temple. Further cleansing.


11:15 - 17

19:45, 46


In the Temple. Further teaching, "Certain Greeks".




12:20 - 50

Opposition of Rulers.



19:-47, 48


He goes out of the city (probably to Bethany; see Luke 21:37, 38)






(Our Monday sunset to Tuesday sunset.)






In the morning (our Tuesday a.m.) on the way to Jerusalem, the question of the disciples about the Fig Tree.


11:20 -26



In Jerusalem again: and in the Temple.

21:23 - 27

11:27 - 33

20:1 - 8


In Jerusalem teaching in Parables; and questions.

21:28 - 23:39

12:1 - 44

20:9 - 21:4


The great prophecy, on the Mount of Olives.

24:1 -51

13:1 - 37



The second great prophecy

25:1 - 46




"After two days is the Passover".

26:1 - 5

14:1, 2



HE RETURNS TO BETHATNY, and is present at the second supper in the house of Simon the leper. The second Anointing.

26:6 - 13

14:3 - 9




(Our Tuesday sunset to Wednesday sunset.)






The plot of Judas Iscariot to betray the Lord.

26:14 - 16

14:10, 11

22:1 - 6


The "preparation" for the last supper.1

26:17 - 19

14:121 -16

22:71 - 13


"The even was come" (our Tuesday after sunset) when the plot for the betrayal was ripe for execution.





The last supper, commencing with the washing of the feet.




13:1 - 20

The announcement of the betrayal, etc..

26:21 - 25

14:18 - 21


13:21 - 30

The supper eaten, the "New Covenant" made (Jeremiah 31:31). The lamb abolished, bread and wine substituted.

26:26 - 29

14:22 - 25

22:14 - 23


The first prophecy of Peter's denials




13:31 - 38

The second prophecy of Peter's denials



22:31 - 34


The final appeal to His first commission (Luke 9:3).



22:35 - 38


The last discourse to the eleven, followed by His prayer.




14:1 - 17:26

The third prophecy of Peter's denial.


14:30, 31



The agony in the garden.

26:36 - 46

14:32 - 42

22:40 - 46


The apprehension of the Lord

26:47 - 56

14:43 - 50

22:47 - 54

18:2 - 11

The trials: continued throughout our Tuesday night.

26:57 - 27:31

14:53 - 15:19

22:54 - 23:25

18:12 - 19:13

Led away to be crucified.

27:31 -34

15:20 - 23

23:26 - 31

19:16, 17

And "led with Him" two "malefactors" (kakourgoi)



23:32, 33


Discussion with Pilate about the Inscriptions




19:19 - 22

The dividing of the garments.

27:35 - 37



19:23, 24

"It was the third hour, and they crucified Him" (our 9 a.m. Wednesday).


15:25, 26



"Then were there two robbers" (lestai) crucified with Him


15:27, 28



The Lord's mother and John.




19:25 27

"The sixth hour" (our Wednesday noon) and the darkness

27:45 - 49


23:44, 45


"The ninth hour" (our Wednesday 3 p.m.) and the expiring cry


15:34 - 37


19:28 - 30

Buried in haste before sunset (our Wednesday about 6 p.m.), before the "high day" (the first day of the Feast began), our Wednesday sunset.

27:57 - 66

15:42 - 47

23:50 - 56

19:38 - 42


(Our Wednesday sunset to Thursday sunset.)

(Our Thursday sunset to Friday sunset.)

(Our Friday susnset to Saturday sunset.)

(Our Saturday sunset: "the third day" of Matthew 16:
21, etc.;
not the third day of the Feast.)






Deut 18:15 "The LORD your God will raise up for you a Prophet like me from your midst, from your brethren. Him you shall hear,”



Exodus 28:1

"Now take Aaron your brother, and his sons with him, from among the children of Israel, that he may minister to Me as priest,…”

Heb 7:11

“Therefore, if perfection were through the Levitical priesthood (for under it the people received the law), what further need was there that another priest should rise according to the order of Melchizedek, and not be called according to the order of Aaron?”

Heb 7:24-25

“But He, because He continues forever, has an unchangeable priesthood. Therefore He is also able to save to the uttermost those who come to God through Him, since He always lives to make intercession for them.”NKJV


King   2 Sam 7:16 “And your house and your kingdom shall be established forever before you. Your throne shall be established forever." NKJV


These three offices are fulfilled by Jesus and took place to a large degree in these periods:

1.     Prophet- From the Fall of Adam to the cross

2.     Priest – From the cross to the Second Coming of Jesus

3.     King – From the beginning of the Millennial reign forever


Prophet – Although Moses calls Himself a prophet and did function as one to some degree (Deut 18:15), the first acknowledged office of prophet in Scripture was Samuel. While Moses led the people, his brother Aaron and his sons were set apart to be priests unto God. Moses could be viewed as the only man until Jesus came and functioned in all three offices:



Jesus was acknowledged by the people as a prophet: Luke 7:16 “Then fear came upon all, and they glorified God, saying, "A great prophet has risen up among us"; and, "God has visited His people."


Luke 24:19  “And he said unto them, What things? And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people:”



Jesus stated clearly that He is a prophet: Matt 13:57  “So they were offended at Him. But Jesus said to them, "A prophet is not without honor except in his own country and in his own house."


Luke 13:33-35 “Nevertheless I must journey today, tomorrow, and the day following; for it cannot be that a prophet should perish outside of Jerusalem.


34  "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the one who kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, as a hen gathers  her brood under her wings, but you were not willing!


35  "See! Your house is left to you desolate; and assuredly, I say to you, you shall not see Me until the time comes when you say, `Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD!'"


The Prophet is to proclaim (preach) and to prophesy about future events.

Jesus did proclaim: Speaking of His revelation of God the Father, Jesus says in John 17:26  "And I have declared to them Your name, and will declare it, that the love with which You loved Me may be in them, and I in them."


As to future prophetic events Jesus prophesied about the destruction of the Temple and of Jerusalem and about the end of the age in Matthew 24 and in Luke 21. Jesus begins Revelation with “The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave Him to show His servants----things which must shortly take place. And He sent and signified it by His angel to His servant John,” Revelation 1:1 and concludes it with Revelation 22:17-20:


17  And the Spirit and the bride say, "Come!" And let him who hears say, "Come!" And let him who thirsts come. Whoever desires, let him take the water of life freely.


18  For I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone adds to these things, God will add to him the plagues that are written in this book;


19  and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the Book of Life, from the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.


20 He who testifies to these things says, "Surely I am coming quickly." Amen. Even so, come, Lord Jesus!”





Heb 8:1



Ps 110:4


A Priest Forever.

Psalms 110:4 The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.

The Priest of the Most High God.

Hebrews 7:1 For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him;

Heb 8:1

“Now this is the main point of the things we are saying: We have such a High Priest, who is seated at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens,” NKJV

Heb 9:11-13

“But Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation. Not with the blood of goats and calves, but with His own blood He entered the Most Holy Place once for all, having obtained eternal redemption.” NKJV

As Priest, Jesus cleansed the Temple 


Cleansing the Temple


Jesus cleanses the Temple twice; once at the beginning of His ministry and once at the end of His Ministry.                     John 2:13-22 and Matt 21:12


Jesus acted as priest when he drove out the money changers


There were thriving businesses under Annas, former high priest, who owned the animals for sacrifice in the Temple. The money-changers transferred Roman coins (bearing inscriptions of the Caesars and names of false gods into Temple money. These money-changers made money on both exchanges: Roman money to Temple money upon entering the Temple and from Temple money back into Roman money as visitors departed. Jesus called these men thieves who were cheating the people. Since this activity was so profane it should have been conducted elsewhere away from the Temple.


In doing this, Jesus fulfilled the prophetic words: Psalm 69:9

“For the zeal of Your house has eaten Me up; and the reproaches of those who reproached You have fallen on Me.”



1. John 2:13-17

“Now the Passover of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.  And He found in the temple those who sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the moneychangers doing business. When He had made a whip of cords, He drove them all out of the temple, with the sheep and the oxen, and poured out the changers' money and overturned the tables. And He said to those who sold doves, "Take these things away! Do not make My Father's house a house of merchandise!" Then His disciples remembered that it was written, "Zeal for Your house has eaten Me up."  NKJV


2. Matt 21:12-14

“Then Jesus went into the temple of God and drove out all those who bought and sold in the temple, and overturned the tables of the money changers and the seats of those who sold doves. And He said to them, "It is written, 'My house shall be called a house of prayer,' but you have made it a 'den of thieves.” NKJV



Deut 17:15 "you shall surely set a king over you whom the LORD your God chooses; one from among your brethren you shall set as king over you;…”

1 Samuel 10:1  Anointing of Saul “Then Samuel took a vial of oil, and poured it upon his head, and kissed him, and said, Is it not because the LORD has anointed thee to be captain over his inheritance?”

1 Samuel 16:13  Anointing of David: “Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his brothers; and the Spirit of the LORD came upon David from that day forward”

Kings 1:39 Anointing of Solomon: “And Zadok the priest took an horn of oil out of the tabernacle, and anointed Solomon. And they blew the trumpet; and all the people said, God save king Solomon.”


2 Kings 9:3  Anointing of Jehu:    “Then take the box of oil, and pour it on his head, and say, Thus saith the LORD, I have anointed thee king over Israel.”


2 Sam 7:16 The Unconditional Covenant “God made with David regarding his seed reigning over Israel.  And your house and your kingdom shall be established forever before you. Your throne shall be established forever." ' NKJV


Ps 110:1-2   "The LORD said to my Lord, "Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool."
The LORD shall send the rod of Your strength out of Zion. Rule in the midst of Your enemies!"

Gen 49:10  "The scepter shall not depart from Judah, Nor a lawgiver from between his feet, Until Shiloh comes; And to Him shall be the obedience of the people."


The Triumphal Entry

(Mark 11:1-25)



The Presentation of the King

Things are not always what they seem. Such was the case with the so-called Triumphal Entry of our Lord Jesus as described by each of the four gospels. On the surface, it was a time of rejoicing and celebration but as that week drew to a close, it was seen in full view as the great tragedy of recorded history.


This was not really a triumph at all. When we study all of the gospel accounts we learn that no one but our Lord grasped the full significance of His actions. The scribes and Pharisees perceived it at the moment as a devastating defeat of their efforts to turn the crowds against Jesus (John 12:19). The multitudes grasped the event as a possible entrance into the Kingdom age, but failed to comprehend the kind of King the Messiah was to be at His first coming, and the nature of His Kingdom (Luke 19:11). The disciples did not understand the meaning of these events either (John 12:16).


The Lord Jesus fully perceived the significance of His actions. While the crowds cheered and lauded Him, Jesus loudly wept as He approached the Holy city


Luke 19:41-44

41 Now as He drew near, He saw the city and wept over it, 42 saying, "If you had known, even you, especially in this your day, the things that make for your peace! But now they are hidden from your eyes. 43 For days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment around you, surround you and close you in on every side, 44 and level you, and your children within you, to the ground; and they will not leave in you one stone upon another, because you did not know the time of your visitation." NKJV


He knew that He was going to His death (cf. Mark 10:32-34; John 12:7-8), but this was not the reason for His tears. He alone grasped the fact that while the momentary appearance was that Jerusalem was hailing Him as their Messiah-King, He was really being rejected, and that this turning of the nation against Him would lead to their destruction and defeat within a few short years.


Things are not always what they seem to be. What appears on the surface to be a hearty welcome is, in fact, a harbinger of warning. More than this, the triumphal entry was not thrust upon Jesus by His disciples or the crowds; it was a deliberate act of His volition to precipitate the final events of His earthly life, as foreordained from eternity past. He was advancing into the jaws of the lion.



The Background to the Triumphal Entry

John informs us that the triumphal entry occurs before the Passover (John 12:1), probably on Sunday. This was a festive occasion and the holiday excitement gripped the Holy city. Many preparations had been made, and a great many foreigners had made their pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Perhaps as many as 110,000 were in the city or its suburbs, six times the normal population.

On this particular Passover, one name was on the lips of every person – the Name of Jesus.


“Now the Passover of the Jews was at hand, and many went up to Jerusalem out of the country before the Passover, to purify themselves. Therefore they were seeking for Jesus, and were saying to one another, as they stood in the temple, ‘What do you think; that He will not come to the feast at all?’ Now the chief priests and the Pharisees had given orders that if any one knew where He was, he should report it, that they might seize Him” (John 11:55-57).


One event in recent days, more than any other, brought the focus of attention on Jesus. He had just recently raised Lazarus from the dead in Bethany, not two miles from Jerusalem, the citadel of opposition to Him. The scribes and Pharisees not only denounced Him, but determined to put both He and Lazarus to death (John 11:46-50; 12:10). Word had gone out that anyone who knew the whereabouts of Jesus should report it to them (John 11:57). Many of those who thronged the way to welcome Jesus to Jerusalem did so because of the report of the raising of Lazarus (John 12:17-18). In such an atmosphere, electric with excitement, expectation and danger, the highly symbolic act of Jesus’ entrance into Jerusalem riding on the back of a young donkey could not be taken lightly. After the feeding of the 5,000, the Savior had to send His disciples away and strongly resist the efforts of men to make Him their King (Mark 6:45-46; John 6:15). Here these efforts are not refused; indeed, Jesus encouraged them.


The Triumphal Entry
Mark 11:1-10


During His earthly ministry, the Lord Jesus revealed a precise sense of timing. Earlier in His ministry, His brothers had, with tongue in cheek, urged Jesus to prove Himself in Jerusalem (John 7:2-5). Jesus refused such a public act for it was not ‘His time’ (John 7:6). Finally, at the triumphal entry, His time had come. It was not just any day, but ‘His day,’ the day predicted long before by the prophet, Daniel 9:26”And after the sixty-two weeks

Messiah shall be cut off, but not for Himself;”NKJV


The Master sent two of His disciples to a nearby village to bring the donkey and her colt. It may well be that Jesus knew the owner of these animals. The disciples found the animals just as they had been told, and when they gave the explanation given by the Master, they were allowed to borrow them. Mark, more than any of the other Gospel writers, makes much of the matter of the borrowing of the two animals.


On the other hand, Mark does not emphasize the fact that this act of the Lord Jesus was a deliberate fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy. Matthew (21:4-5) and John (12:14-15) tell us that this is a precise fulfillment of this portion of the book of Zechariah:

“Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout in triumph, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your King is coming to you; He is just and endowed with salvation, humble, and mounted on a donkey, even on a colt, the foal of a donkey” (Zechariah 9:9).


Gentile readers would not be as impressed with this prophetic fulfillment as would those of Jewish descent.


Mark does draw our attention to the response of the crowds to this dramatic entrance of Jesus into the Holy City. We would gather from the combined information of the gospel accounts that there was the converging of two crowds. One was the crowd that came into the city of Jerusalem with Jesus from Bethany (John 12:9). The other, the multitudes who streamed out of the city of Jerusalem to meet Him as He came (John 12:12-13).

Some placed their garments on the back of the colt, for Jesus to sit upon, while others placed theirs in the path for the animals to walk upon (Mark 11:8). Branches were cut or torn off of the surrounding trees to spread on the path (Mark 11:8) and possibly to be waved in the air.


“The use of palm branches (Jn. 12:13) may have a special message, for these were not only a token of rejoicing: Lev 23:40

"And you shall take for yourselves on the first day the fruit of beautiful trees, branches of palm trees, the boughs of leafy trees, and willows of the brook; and you shall rejoice before the LORD your God for seven days."  NKJV

 Neh 8:14

“and that they should announce and proclaim in all their cities and in Jerusalem, saying, "Go out to the mountain, and bring olive branches, branches of olive trees, myrtle branches, palm branches, and branches of leafy trees, to make booths, as it is written." NKJV


Rev. 7:9  Rev 7:9-11


“After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude which no one could number, of all nations, tribes, peoples, and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, with palm branches in their hands, 10 and crying out with a loud voice, saying, "Salvation belongs to our God who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb!" NKJV


but they may have carried political significance, since they had been used at the feast of tabernacles when Judas Maccabeus’ recapture of the temple from the Syrians was celebrated


2 Macc. 10:7:   …”Then carrying branches, leafy boughs and palms, they offered hymns to Him who had brought the cleansing of His own Holy Place to a happy outcome” Everett F. Harrison, A Short Life of Christ (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1968), p. 168.

It seems almost incredible that anyone could suggest that this had no messianic significance. Jehu was proclaimed King accompanied with men placing their clothes under him (2 Kings 9:13). The welcome given the Lord Jesus parallels that given to military heroes of ancient times.


In addition to these things, Jesus was heralded in terms that could only be called messianic. He was greeted with what was in essence a Hallel Psalm, one of the series (Psalm 113-118) sung at Passover. Mark makes specific reference to Psalm 118:25.

Ps 118:25-26 "Save now, I pray, O LORD; O LORD, I pray, send now prosperity. Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD!"  NKJV


This Psalm is one of the six Psalms most often quoted or made reference to in the New Testament.

Hosanna means ‘help’ or ‘save, I pray.’ While on the one hand, this is a cry for help, it is also apparent that it is also employed as a term of adoration and praise.


In the expression “Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord”

(verse 9), we find that Jesus is hailed as One Who has come as a divine representative (at the least), and in the following statement, “Blessed is the coming Kingdom of our father David,” we see that it is the establishment of the Kingdom which is foremost in the minds of the multitude. ‘Hosanna in the highest’ reflects the angelic announcement of the Messiah’s birth (Luke 2:13-14).


Some commentators believe that the account of the untying of the colt is an allusion to the prophecy of Gen 49:10-11 “The scepter shall not depart from Judah, Nor a lawgiver from between his feet, Until Shiloh comes; And to Him shall be the obedience of the people.  Binding his donkey to the vine, And his donkey's colt to the choice vine, He washed his garments in wine, And his clothes in the blood of grapes.” NKJV   William L. Lane, The Gospel According to Mark (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974), p. 395.


I must conclude that the crowds understood the actions of Jesus as a symbolic statement of His identity as Israel’s Messiah. They hailed Him as the coming One, the King of Israel (Luke 19:38). While the crowds were correct to hail Christ as their Messiah, they were wrong in their conception of the mission of His first appearance and of their concept of the nature and timing of the Kingdom. They were correct to hail Him as the coming King as Zechariah 9:9 promised, but they failed to appreciate the significance of His riding upon the donkey, symbolic of a non-military mission. Here, as in John chapter six, they wish to make Jesus King because of their mistaken hopes of what that Kingdom will be like.


To be more precise, the error of the crowds was at least three-fold.


1st of all, their acclaim was almost totally based upon and motivated by the miracles which He had performed (Luke 19:37; John 12:9). It was not His words (His teaching and doctrine), but His works that motivated many to receive Jesus as Messiah.


2nd, they failed to grasp the proper priorities for the coming Kingdom. Ultimately, the Messiah would establish a physical, earthly Kingdom, but primarily this Kingdom was based upon a spiritual renewal. The cheering crowds thought only of the material dimensions of the Kingdom to the exclusion of the spiritual; only the external aspects and not the internal.


3rd, they were completely in error as to how the Kingdom was to be established. They thought it would be accomplished by military might and revolution, rather than by rejection, suffering, and a humiliating death for the Messiah, Who was to die as the Lamb of God for the sins of His people (cf. Isaiah 52:13–53:12).

Why then did Jesus carry through with this mission? Let me suggest several reasons.


(1) To fulfill prophecy concerning Himself. The gospel accounts stress that this act was the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies, such as those in Zechariah 9:9 and Malachi 3:1. 

(2) To safely enter the city of Jerusalem. It may not seem necessary, but the word was out to disclose the location of Jesus as soon as He appeared (John 11:57). Had Jesus attempted to enter Jerusalem secretly, He could have been quietly disposed of. Entering as He did, the religious leaders could not so much as lift a finger against Him (John 12:19).


(3) To publicly and symbolically give testimony to His identity as Messiah. Neither the crowds nor the religious leaders missed the implications of His triumphal entry.


(4) A proclamation of the kind of Kingdom which He was to establish. Jesus did not march proudly into the city of Jerusalem as a strutting military figure, nor did He ride on a spirited stallion. He rode on a donkey, symbolic of his humble peace-making assignment. This aspect of the triumphal entry was totally overlooked. Only the later events of the week would make this clear, and then the cheering crowds would turn their backs on the Messiah.


(5) To provoke the opposition and precipitate His own execution on the appointed day. Nothing could have been more of a catalyst to the opposing forces than this bold public proclamation. Now something had to be done, and fast!


The irony of the sequence of events in the last week of our Lord’s earthly ministry is striking. The grandiose expectations of the multitudes would have inclined them to expect Jesus to muster His forces and launch an all-out attack on the military garrison in Jerusalem. Instead, Jesus marched into the temple and launched a surprise attack against the religious establishment. The Jews hoped for an attack against Rome. Jesus waged war against ‘religion.’

Mark alone informs us that Jesus’ attack upon the religious system was not spontaneous, but highly calculated, just as His triumphal entry. In verse 11 we are told that upon His arrival in Jerusalem, Jesus went immediately to the temple. There He looked about and, since the hour was already late, He returned to Bethany with the twelve. While an attack upon the money changers was possible on this occasion, it would not have the impact that it would have on the following day during peak ‘business hours.’



The Presentation of our High Priest


Returning the next day, He went into the temple and single-handedly purged it, just as at the outset of His ministry. There is little doubt that Jesus is attacking the highest religious authorities in the most sensitive spot—their pocketbooks. Annas and Caiaphas certainly were at the bottom of this corrupt operation.


(Note: “Josephus describes Annaz (or Ananua), the son of the Annas of the New Teatament, as ‘a great hoarder up of money, ‘very rich, and as despoiling by open violence the common priests of their official revenues. The Talmud also records the curse which a distinguished Rabbi of Jerusalem (Abba Shaul) pronounced upon the High-Priestly families (including that of Annas), who were themselves High Priests, their sons treasurers (Gizbarin), their sons-in-law assistant-treasurers (Ammarkalin), while their servants beat the people with sticks.” Alfred Edersheim, Life and Times, I, pp. 371-372.)



As I understand this decisive attack of the Savior, it was against three evils.

1st , it was an attack against a den of thieves (verse 17). Here our Lord reveals divine displeasure at the way men were making religion a front for money-making. It was necessary, of course, for the pilgrims and sojourners who had traveled from afar to Jerusalem to purchase sacrificial animals and to exchange foreign currency into coinage for the temple tax. It was not necessary to do this in the temple precincts and surely not at prices which were exorbitant.


Edersheim informs us that on the Mount of Olives there were four shops, especially for the sale of sacrificial animals and related needs. But if one bought an animal there he would have to pay a fee at the temple to have his animal inspected. In addition it is likely that there was collusion between the owners of the temple bazaar and the inspectors so that many of the animals purchased outside of the temple were rejected as unfit. When all was said and done, it was easier, if not cheaper, to purchase animals at the temple bazaar which were assured to have been already inspected and found acceptable for sacrificial offerings. It would appear that these animals were sold at an inflated price, the profits being divided between its high priestly owners and the market proprietors.


Also there was the need to exchange foreign currency into Tyrian coinage in order to pay the annual temple tax (Exodus 30:13-16). The Tyrian shekel was the closest available equivalent to the old Hebrew shekel. Duly certified places of currency exchange were provided throughout the provinces and regulated by Law. A certain margin of profit was allowed. But as the Passover drew near, these provincial places of exchange were closed down, perhaps two weeks prior to Passover. After this, the only convenient place of exchange was at the temple bazaar in the temple precincts.

Jesus’ objection to this practice was that it was a profiteering enterprise often at the expense of those least able to afford it. Religious activity was a pretext for profit-making. This was not the justice and mercy which God desired of His people.


2nd objection was to the desecration of the holy place. The sight, sound and smell of sheep and cattle filled the air. Such was not the atmosphere for worship. The bickering and bartering which could be heard was a far cry from the praises and adoration in which God delighted.


The rebuke of Jesus was fully in accord with existing Jewish regulations which restricted the use of this part of the temple. Specifically, people were forbidden to pass this way, using it as a shortcut. No doubt, this is why Jesus forbade people to carry goods through the temple (Mark 11:16). The Lord was acting fully in accord with the Old Testament revelation as well (cf. Zechariah 14:21; Hosea 9:15).


Zech 14:21Yes, every pot in Jerusalem and Judah shall be holiness to the LORD of hosts.NKJV

Hos 9:15 "All their wickedness is in Gilgal, For there I hated them. Because of the evil of their deeds I will drive them from My house;

I will love them no more. All their princes are rebellious. NKJV


3rd objection (and one clearly pointed out only by Mark) was that the temple bazaar denied the worship of the Gentiles:

“And He began to teach and say to them, ‘Is it not written, ‘My house shall be called a house of prayer for all the nations? But you have made it a robber’s den’” (Mark 11:17).


This quotation is taken from Isaiah 56:7 and Jeremiah 7:11. The context of Isaiah’s words specifically refers to the worship of the Gentiles which will occur in the future (Isaiah 56:6-8). And yet the place in the temple precincts where the bazaar was set up was the only place where the Gentiles were permitted. How could the nations worship God in this circus?


What was the meaning of this temple cleansing?

(1) It revealed that God was more angered by the religion of Israel, His people, than the political damnation of Rome. He did not attack the Roman garrison, but the religious abomination in the temple. By this He revealed the true purpose of His first coming. It was not to throw off the shackles of Rome, but to restore true religion to the nation Israel. To put it in other terms, it was not to bring about political and social reform, but spiritual renewal and restoration.


Our Lord’s actions in cleansing the temple were intended to reveal to all Israel that the real enemy was within and not without. The implications of the triumphal entry are further pressed upon the multitudes within Israel. His Kingdom is not the kind which they supposed. He has come, not to deal with the oppressors of Rome, but the opponents of true religion.


(2) It was designed to further precipitate the final conflict and crises between Himself and the religious system of His day. The scribes and Pharisees were white hot with anger and were ready to attempt any plan that might rid the nation of this ‘menace’ (Mark 11:18).


It is only Matthew who contrasts the sham of superficial religiosity in the bazaar with the realization of God’s purpose for the temple (Matthew 21:14-17). Here we see, in part, what true religion should be like. In place of the sound of bartering voices there was the chorus of children’s voices singing praises to God in the person of Jesus Christ (verse 15). Instead of profiteering there is the physical ministry of healing at the hands of the Savior (verse 14). Rather than the sound of sheep and cattle, there is the voice of the Savior teaching men truths about God (Luke 19:47-48).


The Cursing of the Fig Tree
(Mark 11:12-14, 20-25)

The whole matter of the triumphal entry and the cleansing of the temple can best be summarized in the symbolic lesson of the cursing of the fig tree. It is deliberately woven into the fabric of the account of the temple cleansing, to show us that this narrative is but one piece of cloth.


Granted, the emphasis of this incident (as discussed between Jesus and His disciples in verses 20-25) is upon the power of the prayer of faith. But this is only because the disciples were not able to grasp its deepest significance until after the Savior’s death and resurrection (cf. John 12:16).


The fig tree is a symbol of Israel. The barren fig tree strikingly portrayed the condition of the nation Israel as Jesus saw it. There was the outward profession and the promise of fruit (as indicated by the presence of leaves on the fig tree, but upon closer evaluation this promise was empty.

Like the leaves of the fig tree, the nation appeared to hunger and thirst after righteousness and the coming of the Kingdom of God. But behind all of this religious flurry of acclaim and activity, there was no real fruit or repentance. There was only the selfish hope of the military rout of Rome and the establishment of a Kingdom that meant the absence of worry and work (cf. John 6:26,34, etc.).


Again, like the barren fig tree, there was at the temple a great deal of religious activity. But it was not centered upon the worship of God, but upon the self-enhancement at some of the expense of others.

This triumphal tragedy contrasted God’s Kingdom (and His King) against the backdrop of the religious exercises and expectations of the nation. It was a tragic misunderstanding that only our Lord grasped. It was our Lord setting His face toward Jerusalem, walking in the path of the cross, sovereignly exposing more and more of Himself, and in the process, bringing about His own execution because men will not have salvation God’s way, but their own.

Cursing of the fig tree was symbolic and prophetic pronounced by the greatest prophet of Israel.



12 Confirmations of the Scripture regarding the Kingship of the Son of God.


12 symbolizes government. For example, 12 Tribes of Jacob, 12 Apostles

KING OF GLORY Ps 24:7-10
KING OF ISRAEL Mk 15:32; Isa 44:6
KING OF KINGS Rev 17:14; 19:16
KING OF THE JEWS Jn 19:21; Lk 23:38; Mk 15:26; Mt 27:37
YOUR KING Isa 43:15


The Last Supper


The New Testament contains four accounts of the Last Supper.

Matt 26:26-30, Mark 14:22-25, Luke 22:14-20 and 1 Cor 11:23-26

The Gospel of John has no account of the last supper, however it contains foot-washing as a lesson to the disciples of humility in leadership and personal intimate dialogue between Jesus and his Apostles.


Both Luke and Paul show our Lord’s words “do this in remembrance of Me”.


1 Cor 11:23-26


“For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you: that the Lord Jesus on the same night in which He was betrayed took bread; and when He had given thanks(eucharistesas), He broke it and said, "Take, eat; this is My body which is broken for you; do this in remembrance of Me." In the same manner He also took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in My blood. This do, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me." For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death till He comes.” NKJV


Matthew’s Account: Matt 26:26-30

"And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, blessed and broke it, and gave it to the disciples and said, "Take, eat; this is My body." Then He took the cup, and gave thanks (eucharisteo), and gave it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you.  For this is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.  But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father's kingdom." And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives." NKJV


Both Paul and Luke use the word “remembrance” which must be considered when studying the Last Supper. Some critics choose to read Matthew and Mark’s account which do not contain “do this in remembrance of Me.”

(note 1)


Jesus and His Apostles are eating this Feast in the evening, the beginning of the Day of Preparation – one entire day before Passover. By the next 6pm, Jesus will have been laid in a tomb after His sufferings & death by crucifixion. Since this is one day earlier than everyone else eating Passover, some question whether the Last Supper was Passover. For certain reasons, a man could eat Passover 30 days after the Feast. Since Jesus is Passover He can certainly celebrate it one day early. This is critically important because the Lamb of God would die on the crosss at precisely the last hour and minute that the priests were inspecting and killing the Passover lambs.


Matthew (written to Jews) assures us that this was a Passover meal by referring to the cup & the singing of praise (The Hallal – Psalms 113-114 sung before dinner and Psalms 115-118 after dinner). Four cups of wine are consumed in the Passover. On the third cup, Jesus spoke His words about the New Covenant and states that He will not drink of the fruit of the vine (the 4th cup) until He drinks it with His disciples in the Father’s Kingdom.


When a covenant is made, there must be the shedding of blood (Hebrews 9:16-17 and verse 22.


The Passover looked back and celebrated the Jewish freedom from the bondage of Israel which preceded the Covenant on Mount Sinai by 50 days.

This New Covenant, represented by the bread and wine will point toward the vicarious Blood Atonement of Jesus, our Savior, at the cross.


The Words of Jesus give this Passover meal a meaning in covenant with Almighty God. The New Covenant in Jesus’ Blood would now replace the Old Covenant of the Law.


The Passover Meal:

1.     unleavened bread reminded the Jews of the swiftness of God’s deliverance and also His salvation.

2.     a bowl of salt water reminded them of the tears shed in their captivity and the crossing of the Red Sea.

3.     bitter herbs recalled the bitterness of slavery.

4.     the four cups of wine reminded them of the promises of Exodus 6:6-7

“Therefore say to the sons of Israel, I am Jehovah, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rescue you out of their bondage. And I will redeem you with a stretched-out arm, and with great judgments.

And I will take you to Me for a people, and I will be to you a God. And you shall know that I am the LORD your God, who brings you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.”



Passover   The Lord’s Supper
No bone of lamb is to be broken Numbers 9:12, Lev 22:24   


Jesus’ legs were not broken, but side is pierced
God remembered the covenant A new covenant is given
Slavery in Egypt  slavery to sin
Deliverance from bondage deliverance from Satan’s kingdom **

          ** Colossians 1:12-13 “Giving thanks unto the Father, which has made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light: "Who has delivered us from the power of darkness, and has translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son:"


Note 1 “do this in remembrace of  Me”. Luke 22:19, 1 Cor 11:25-26

Three Historical Interpretations of the Lord's Supper

       Transubstantiation – 4th Lateran Council 1215AD defined as actually Jesus’ flesh and blood in eucharist – worship of eucharist. Only a priest can perform this transformation which becomes the center of Catholic worship.

        Consubstantiation: - Luther defined that Jesus body and blood are contained in the eucharist spiritually and represented by bread and wine.

1 Cor 11:27-31

“Therefore whoever eats this bread or drinks this cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of the bread and drink of the cup. For he who eats and drinks in an unworthy manner eats and drinks judgment to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. For this reason many are weak and sick among you, and many sleep. For if we would judge ourselves, we would not be judged.” NKJV                           


The type of Christ that foreshadows the Blood Atonement of Jesus is found in Exodus 24:8 “And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD hath made with you concerning all these words.”


John 14:31  “But that the world may know that I love the Father; and as the Father gave me commandment, even so I do. Arise, let us go hence.


Note: There is speculation that , as Jesus and the disciples walked from the upper room to the Garden of Gethsemane, they walked by the Temple which was appropriate during Passover. There is always a full moon during Passover so there was light. They stopped to behold the sight of the Temple Gates, which had imbedded into them a vine, the symbol of Israel.


The Vine and Israel


Psalm 80:8-9 “Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt: thou hast cast out the heathen, and planted it. Thou prepared room before it, and did cause it to take deep root, and it filled the land.”


Isaiah 5:7 “For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of Judah his pleasant plant: and he looked for judgment, but behold oppression; for righteousness, but behold a cry.”


Jeremiah 2:21 “Yet I had planted thee a noble vine, wholly a right seed: how then art thou turned into the degenerate plant of a strange vine unto me?”


Hosea 10:1 “Israel is an empty vine, he bringeth forth fruit unto himself: according to the multitude of his fruit he hath increased the altars; according to the goodness of his land they have made goodly images.”


There are some well-intentioned Christian teachers in the Body of Christ who try to see the church in the Old Testament by calling the vine the church and the fig tree Israel.

e.g. Joe 2:22  “Be not afraid, ye beasts of the field: for the pastures of the wilderness do spring, for the tree beareth her fruit, the fig tree and the vine do yield their strength.”


The church was a mystery in the Old Testament, unknown to even God’s prophets. Eph 3:2-12

“if indeed you have heard of the dispensation of the grace of God which was given to me for you,  how that by revelation He made known to me the mystery (as I have briefly written already, by which, when you read, you may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ),  which in other ages was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed by the Spirit to His holy apostles and prophets:  that the Gentiles should be fellow heirs, of the same body, and partakers of His promise in Christ through the gospel,  of which I became a minister according to the gift of the grace of God given to me by the effective working of His power.


To me, who am less than the least of all the saints, this grace was given, that I should preach among the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ, and to make all see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the ages has been hidden in God who created all things through Jesus Christ; to the intent that now the manifold wisdom of God might be made known by the church to the principalities and powers in the heavenly places, according to the eternal purpose which He accomplished in Christ Jesus our Lord, in whom we have boldness and access with confidence through faith in Him. NKJV


Now for the true Vine

 John 15:11  “I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman.

2  Every branch in me that beareth not fruit he taketh away: and every branch that beareth fruit, he purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit.

 3  Now you are clean through the word which I have spoken to you. (Eph 5:26  That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word),

 4  Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in me.

 5  I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abides in me, and I in him, the same brings forth much fruit: for without me ye can do nothing.

 6  If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned.

 7  If you abide in me, and my words abide in you, you shall ask what you will, and it shall be done unto you.

 8  Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit; so shall ye be my disciples.

 9  As the Father hath loved me, so have I loved you: continue ye in my love.

 10  If ye keep my commandments, ye shall abide in my love; even as I have kept my Father's commandments, and abide in his love.

 11  These things have I spoken unto you, that my joy might remain in you, and that your joy might be full.

 12  This is my commandment, That ye love one another, as I have loved you.

 13  Greater love has no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.

 14  You are my friends, if you do whatsoever I command you.


John 15:18-25 “If the world hate you, you know that it hated me before it hated you.

 19  If you were of the world, the world would love his own: but because you are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hates you.

 20  Remember the word that I said unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord. If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you; if they have kept my saying, they will keep yours also.

 21  But all these things will they do unto you for my name's sake, because they know not him that sent me.

 22  If I had not come and spoken unto them, they had not had sin: but now they have no excuse for their sin.

 23  He that hates me hates my Father also.

 24  If I had not done among them the works which none other man did, they had not had sin: but now have they both seen and hated both me and my Father.

25 But this comes to pass, that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law, "They hated me without a cause.”

(PSA 69:4)

It is a terrible thing to know Jesus, then to turn away from Him and reject Him.


Example of Judas

Acts 1:25 “That he may take part of this ministry and apostleship, from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place.” (Greek: topos: ST 5117 1) place, any portion or space marked off, as it were from surrounding space

 1a) an inhabited place, as a city, village, district

 1b) a place (passage) in a book

 2) metaph.

 2a) the condition or station held by one in any company or assembly

 2b) opportunity, power, occasion for acting


  It is not specified that he was sent to hell. This is a difficult Scripture.

Romans 11:29: “For the gifts and calling of God are irrevocable.” Judas was called to be an Apostle for the True Messiah, Jesus. Judas was also referred to in this Scripture:


John 17:12  “While I was with them in the world, I kept them in thy name: those that thou gave me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be fulfilled.”


Hebrews 9:27 “ For it is appointed for a man to die once, then comes judgment.”

Malachi 4:5 clearly states that God will send Elijah to the Jews before the dreadful “Day of the Lord”. We all believe he will be one of the two witnesses in the Book of Revelation who are slain by the beast and raised from the dead miraculously.

Only Elijah and Enoch never saw death in the Old Testament. In keeping with

Hebrews 9:27, it is a theory that these will be the two witnesses sent by God to witness during the Tribulation.

John 17:12  “While I was with them in the world, I kept them in thy name: those that thou gavest me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the son of perdition; that the scripture might be fulfilled.”


2Th 2:3 “Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition;”


The beast and the false prophet are cast alive into the Lake of Fire. (Rev 19:20   “And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.”)


Since they did not die, and since Hebrews 9:27 is true, I personally believe that these two, the beast and the false prophet have been here before. Since Judas had the office of “Apostle” and rejected the true Christ, I believe that he will be returned in his office to serve the false Christ. (Theory only – not doctrine).


The Four Cups of Wine Drank at Passover



There are four cups of wine consumed on Jewish pesah (Passover). These are:


1.     The Cup of Sanctification


2.     The Cup of Thanksgiving


3.     The Cup of Redemption


4.     The Cup of Completion


The Cup of Sanctification This cup reflects an event 400 years before the Exodus; the cup given to Abraham by Melchizedek. Gen 14:18  “Then Melchizedek king of Salem brought out bread and wine; he was the priest of God Most High.” The first requirement of sanctification is “be ye separate from them…”


The Second Cup represents Thanksgiving in the Exodus Moses the Deliverer. Ex 6:6-7 “Therefore say to the children of Israel: 'I am the LORD; I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, I will rescue you from their bondage, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments.  I will take you as My people, and I will be your God. Then you shall know that I am the LORD your God who brings you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.’  NKJV


1Cor 5:7 1 Cor 5:7

“Therefore purge out the old leaven, that you may be a new lump, since you truly are unleavened. For indeed Christ, our Passover, was sacrificed for us.”  NKJV


The Third Cup is called the Cup of Redemption which commemorates the salvation of Israel from their bondage in Egypt. In the New Covenant, this is fulfilled by Jesus at the Cross and is referenced in the Last Supper:

Matt 26:26-29


26 And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, blessed and broke it, and gave it to the disciples and said, "Take, eat; this is My body." Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, "Drink from it, all of you.  For this is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father's kingdom." NKJV


Ex 6:6 "Therefore say to the children of Israel: 'I am the LORD; I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, I will rescue you from their bondage, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments.


The Third Cup was not drunk by Jesus with His disciples. The Third cup for Jesus was the cross:

Jesus referred to the Third Cup when He prayed in the Garden of Gethsemene:

Matthew 26:39  He went a little farther and fell on His face, and prayed, saying, "O My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless, not as I will, but as You will."


The Fourth Cup is called the Cup of Completion Exodus 6:7 “And I will take you to Me for a people, and I will be to you a God. And you shall know that I am the LORD your God, who brings you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.”

The prayer accompanying the 4th Cup now by devout Jews. It contains these words: “Have mercy, we beg you LORD, our G-D, on Israel, Your people, on Jerusalem, your city, on Zion, resting place of your glory; Your Altar, Your Temple. Rebuild Jerusalem, the City of Your Holiness, speedily in our days…”


The Fourth Cup of Completion is mentioned in Rev 14:9-10

“Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, "If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation. He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb.” NKJV


This last cup is the completion of Sanctification, Thanksgiving, Salvation and the completion of the cup of God’s wrath when Jesus returns to bring

Isa 61:2 “To proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD, and the day of vengeance of our God; to comfort all that mourn;”



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